GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 36
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 36 Pages Cover1-
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 36 Pages Cover2-
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1981 Volume 36 Pages App1-
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Jiro YONEKURA
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 36 Pages 1-15
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    The excavation of Mohenjo-Daro revealed the most ancient town planning in the world. In the chapter "Architecture and Massonry" in the vol_ I of the voluminous reports "Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization" which was published in 1931 under the direction of Sir John Marshall, Ernest Mackay had stated that all main streets were oriented to the points of the compass, the broad streets were about 30ft. wide, and the lanes varied from 3ft. 8inches. to 7ft. in width. In the attached general map "Site Plan of Mohenjo-Daro" were shown First Street and East Street as the main streets running north-south and east-west respectively. Mr. Mackay continued the excavation and published "Further Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro, 2vols in 1938. Prof. S. Piggot indicated at first the street-plan on Mohenjo-Daro as shown in Fig. I using the site plan of above two reports. He supposed the basic lay-out would be a gridiron of main streets running north-south and east-west, dividing the area into blocks of roughly equal size and approximately rectangular in shape, 800ft. east-to-west and 1200ft. north-to-south. The present author interpretes a new idea regarding the township of Mohenjo-Daro in Fig. 2. The difference between two figures is caused mostly from the north-south street direction of Dk. area C section in the site plan of Mohenjo-Daro. It is written in N 1'-2' W direction in the plan, but according to the detailed map of Dk area B and C sections (PL. LXII in vol. 3 of Marshall's Report), it is clear that the direction is at least N 5' E, and the present author corrected the direction of these sites with relation to A and G sections. Thus the north-south street in Dk area B section is almost parallel to the First St. dn the contrary to the Piggot's plan, in which streets run unparallel; this is the result of the mistaken mapping in original site plan. North-south street in A section in Dk area is also parallel to the First St., and extending street lines in A, B and C sections the present author found that the distance between these streets are almost equal with about 600ft. or 180m. The present author supposed the width of blocks would be 600ft. Drawing parallel to the First St. to the westward, the first line coincides with the western edge of eastern mound of the site, and the second one traverses the eastern edge of Stupa mound, passing through the Stupa site. It would have significant meaning. Although this Stupa was erected during 2 century A. D., but the site would have been the religious centre since the beginning of the town. We found such site was used as the centre of towns in ancient orient and Indian cities, this tradition would have been occurred from Indus Cities.
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  • Nobuo KOHCHI
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 36 Pages 16-22
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    It is well-known that meander wavelength is empirically related to the square root of discharge. However, relations between wavelength and stream discharge are more complex than a simple two variable relationship would suggest. So far, meander wavelength has been known to be controlled by discharge, size of sediment, and slope. There has been few studies of free meanders related to the discharge in Japan, and, studies which stressed the factors controlling meander geometry are few and far between in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the wavelength of free meanders in Japan in terms of multiple regression analysis, of which independent variables are the discharge, the size of bed materials, and the valley slope. The author obtained the data extensively from the major rivers in Japan, for which discharge records were available for more than 10 vears. Since natural bankfull discharge is difficult to measure in Japan, the discharge of 1.58-year flood, which is the most probable annual flood, and also the channel-forming discharge, was used as the discharge variable. The bankfull discharge, the median diameter of bed materials, and the valley slope were selected as independent variables. On the basis of these data, a multiple regression analysis of meander wavelength was conducted stepwise. At the first step, the bankfull discharge Ql'58 Was the first independent variable being in relation to the wavelength Lm as follows; Lm = 1480 + 0.597 Ql'58 """' """"(1) Testing the regression equation by the value of F, it was found that the equation was significant at 1% Ievel of significance. On the other hand, the values of F of the variables other than the discharge, revealed that they were not significant at 1% Ievel of siguificance. After all, the wavelength of free meanders in Japan turned out to be dependent strongly on the discharge. Other factors do not contribute to the wavelength significantly. The equation (1) shows that the meander wavelength can be expressed as a linear function of the bankfull discharge, and not as a power function. The previous result obtained by the present author for 36 points in Japan, is expressed as follows; Lm = 43.9 Qmax0.53 ...... ........(2) where Lm is wavelength, and Qmax is decennary arithmetic mean of maximum discharge in a year. The equation (2) closely resembles that obtained by Dury for 133 paired observations. The reason why the equation (1)obtained from present study does not show power functional relation, may be mainly due to the fact that the data used are limited. The value of squared correlation coefficient of the equation (1) is as low as 0.596. Free meanders in Japan may have been influenced by factors other than those adopted here. We can not overlook the human interference in rivers of Japan.
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  • Shigeru SAKAGAWA
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 36 Pages 23-31
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    Up to this time, the distance has been used as an index for the study of optimal location with the linear programming method. It is known, however, that the patients decide the destination where they receive medical care by considering other factors(indicies) too. In this study the author tried to make these factors clear using multi regression analysis as a case study of outpatient behavior in Hiroshima prefecture. In this analysis, the value, which is the ratio of outpatients utilizing the medical facilities in Hiroshima city to all patients of the community, is accepted as the dependent variable. As a result the distance(X*) occured as the most important factor, as before estimated. Other factors in order of importance are the intervening opportunity(X+)(the ratio of patients utilizing the modical facilities in the large cities except Hiroshima city to all patients of the community), the ratio of workers employed in the primary industry to all workers of the community(X6), the ratio of patients with disturbances of the circulatory organs to all patients of the community (X7), and the ratio of patients serviced by the facility within their OWn community to all patients of the community(X3)' These five independent variables explain 69.2% of the variation of the dependent variable.The distribution of residuals seems to still be significant, for it shows positive value in the west part of Hiroshima prefecture but negative value in the east part. The fact that the distance is the most important factor may strongly support the standpoint of the study of optimal location. However, the author cannot accept this stand entirely, because the intervening opportunity as the second factor cannot be negligible, and there may be other factors concerning the outpatient behavior according to the distribution of residuals. In order to make a better index for the study of optimal location, we may need to weigh the index(based on the distance) with those factors, especially the intervening opportunity. We should, however, apply this index to the patient groups classified by disease or particular department of medicine rather than to all patients unclassified. Simultaneously we should find a general factor of determining outpatient behavior, not only of Hiroshima city, but also of other cities. The author hopes to advance his study by using such a method in future.
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  • S NAKAYAMA
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 36 Pages 32-39
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 36 Pages 40-42
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 36 Pages 42-43
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1981 Volume 36 Pages Misc1-
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1981 Volume 36 Pages App2-
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 36 Pages Cover3-
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 36 Pages Cover4-
    Published: 1981
    Released: April 15, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (27K)
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