The purpose of this paper Is to discuss the dimensionality of time-space. In this paper, the dimensionality has two senses as follows: 1) The number of dimensions. 2) The interpretability of each dimension. The time-space is reconstructed from the time-distance matrix between forty six cities which are the prefectual capitals in Japan, under the assumption that one travels between cities by the Japanese National Railways only. The time-distance matrix is constructed by three ways as follows: l) 1961, using the conventional lines only. 2) 1980, including the Tokaido and Sanyo Shinkansen, the trunk line with very high speed. 3) The year after the Tohoku and Joetsu Shinkansen is opened. The Torgerson's metric MDS procedure is applied for the reconstruction of time-space. In each case of three as before, two or three dimensions of time-space are necessary and sufficient in order to reconstruct the time-distance matrix. Then considering how these dimensions are interpreted, the correlation analysis is applied. That is, correlation coefficients are measured between the coordinate of the first, second or third dimension of time-space and the relative goodness-of-fit on each city; the relative goodness-of-fit is measured between the input of time-distance and the time-distance in the reconstructed time-space. The results are poor. Obvious relationships are not discovered. However, in this paper, the viewpoints of dimensionality of time space may be clear.
The appearance of the Shinkansen Line has caused the most typical traffic reformation in these days in our country. And it has not only given the great change to the way of life of the inhabitants along the Line, but also has exerted an inestimable influence on the society and the economics of Japan. The Sanyo Shinkansen Line was opened in March, 1975. The author has made investigations on its influence, especially on the spheres of the four stations in Yamaguchi Prefecture. As a result he has got the following findings about the change of the traffic system, the advancement of the sphere of station's influence and the transformation of the vicinities of the stations. (1) By the opening of the Sanyo Shinkansen Line Yamaguchi Prefecture has been involved in the regional traffic system. And a new traffic system has been making progress, centering around the cities which have the stations of the Line. At the same time the Sanyo Main Line, which is in the competitive position, has declined in the value of the trunk line. And the traffic functions of the towns and cities except the ones which have the Shinkansen Stations have been damaged in communication. The establishment of New Shimonoseki and New lwakuni Stations, which has been founded apart from the main stations of the old Sanyo Main Line, has made the number of the passengers of the old stations extremely decrease. (2) The connection between the Shinkansen Line and the bus services is weak. In the course of the reduction and regulation of the bus services the number of the new bus lines except the connection lines between Sanyo and Sanin and the lines directly connecting the Shinkansen Stations with the Sanyo Main Line Stations has hardly increased. The long distance bus services, which are also in a rival position, has been obliged to discontinue. (3) Since the opening of the Shinkansen Line there has been much difference between the use of the up trains and that of the down ones in the spheres of the stations. The former is much more dominant. The spheres bear strong relations to the daily traffic systems. Among the spheres that of Ogori Station has built up the biggest, reaching the western part of Shimane Prefecture. On the contrary the eastern part of Yamaguchi Prefecture has been involved into the sphere of Hiroshima Station, which has invaded the sphere of Shiniwakuni. (4) The traffic resorts to the Shinkansen Stations are largely that of park and ride by cars. The use rate of it depends upon the conditions of improved roads and traffic facilities. It can be said that the taxis are intensively used at the time zone when the mass transportations can not be available. (5) The number of passengers by the Shinkansen Line is in proportion to that of the population of the spheres of the stations. The slight relative difference of the use rates is due to regional conditions of the spheres of the stations. The highest rate of use is found at Ogori Station the sphere of which has sightseeing places and the seat of the prefectural office, attracting lots of the people who use the Line.