Several methods for nodal regionalization using interaction matrices such as information, passengers, commodities and money, have been developed since around 1960s, including Graph theory method (1) (Nystuen & Dacey, 1961), Direct connection method (Morikawa, 190'1), Principal component analysis method (Garrison & Marble, 1962), Factor analysis method (Goddard, 1970), Markov chain method (Brown & Holmes, 1971), Combination method of graph theory and gravity model (Rouget 1972) Graph theory method (2) (Slater 1974) Direct cluster analysis method (Clayton, 1974) and Functional distance method (Keane, 1978). Of these methods, Nystuen-Dacey model has been most widely used for empirical studies (Tinkler, 1979). Objectives of this paper are, first, to provide a brief review of various modifications of the Nystuen-Dacey model (Table 1) and, second, to test empirically an improved model by the author. This improved mode_1 contains six main modifications, including: (1) A study area is regarded as an open system, by considering also the interactions with outside the study area, (2) Nodal hierarchies are determined by the rank size distribution of total flows each node generates, (3) Indirect effects of n-steps are evaluated by employing equation (6), (4) Directionality of nodal flows is calculated by employing equation (8), (5) The nth largest nodal flows as well as the largest are evaluated to reduce the information loss of the nodal structures, by employing the method by Holmes & Haggett (1977), and (6) Dominant-subordinate relationship is measured by the method of Rouget (1972) (equation (7)). This model was applied to Yamanashi Prefecture and traffic flows were used as the interaction data. The result of the analysis (Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5) was highly fitted with the previous empirical research, and the usefulness of the model was examined.
It is the purpose of this paper to estimate the amount of earth moved through Kannanagashi and the output of tatara in the Chugoku Mountains from historical data. In Japan iron was produced only by the traditional ironsand smelting method, tatara, until Western style smelting was introduced in 1853, and the tatara method continued to operate until the 1920s. The ironsand used as raw material is found in small quantities in weathered granitic rocks, it was collected by cutting weathered rocks and sorting in running water. This method of mining was known as kannanagashi. Spurs and hills in the Chugoku Mountains have been deformed by kannanagashi on a large scale as the quantities of ironsand found were small in proportion to the amount of earth moved. The amount of earth moved and the output of tatara can be estimated for the period of about 220 years from the beginning of the 18th century to the 1920s using the following factors: 1) the ratio of volume of iron sand collected to that of earth cut, 2) the volume of ironsand collected at one mine for one year, 3) the number of mines, 4) the ratio of iron sand used for tatara to output of tatara, 5) the volume of ironsand used for one tatara for one year, 6) the out put of one tatara for one year, and 7) the number of tatara. From the above calculations I conclude that the amount of earth moved was about 1,508 million m^3 and the output of tatara was about 2,660,000t.
Consumers' spatial behavior has recently been progressively investigated from the behavioral viewpoint in the Western countries. One of the features of these studies is that they are mainly focused upon the psychological process, comprising mental maps, of consumers. Paying attention to this trend, the author examined the relationships between consumers' cognition and overt behavior through com-paring the consumers' cognition patterns with shopping patterns of supermarkets in Saga City. The data used in this study were collected through the questionnaires concerning the cognition and shopping of 30 supermarkets within the city by 395 housewives. "The Hayashi's Quantification Teory-II" is applied for extracting dimensions which classify the cognition patterns and shopping patterns, then cluster analysis and probability concentration ellipse are applied for classifying super-markets and consumers respectively. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The simple ratio analysis proves that the stores of smaller size are locally cognized and patronized by consumers in the districts where they are located or neighbored, while the stores of larger size in C. B. D. are commonly cognized and patronized by consumers in every districts (Fig. 3). (2) The following similarities and differences between cognition patterns and shopping patterns are found as a result of classification of supermarkets by means of the Quantification Theory-III and cluster analysis. (Similarities) i) The configuration of supermarkets both in "mental space" and "behavioral space" reflects that of geographic space (Tab. 4(a)). ii) The groups of supermarkets obtained through cluster analysis generally consist of supermarkets closely located each other in geographic space (Fig. 4(b)). (Differences) i) The configuration of supermarkets In "behavioral space" is more closely related to their configuration in geographic space than in "mental space" (Tab. 4). ii) The groups of supermarkets in "behavioral space" are generally formed along the main roads within the city (Fig. 2; Fig. 5(b)).