Geography had been taking part in developing better understanding and recognition of society Japanese citizen (Shinmin) was supposed to bear in mind, along with required subjects as history and moral in the school. Japanese sacrificed themselves for the emperor state and society till the end of World War II. But this subject had remained unpopular and unwelcomed among pupils and students as well as teachers. Many attempts had been tried to improve school geography theoretically and practically. Tunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944) who is very well-known as the first president of Soukagakkai, one of the most powerful buddist groups in Japan. He had tried to cope with this problem. The aim of this study is to make clear his reform theory on school geography by investigating his major papers and books dealing with this problem in the Taisho era. The results are as follows; he regarded school geography as core subject for developing social comprehension indispensable to the citizens. And he proposed the original principles of the subject contents and teaching methods that would certainly realize the new goals of the subject. To explain this, Makiguchi insisted that the subject contents should include "Jinsei Chirigaku" (Makiguchi geography), a sort of general geography, and in accordance with the theory of instruction proposed by the school of Herbart, children and students should recognize these contents intutively in their familiar environments and, by taking advantage of these contents, they should study regional geography contents. His proposals were too radical to be realized in the world of education at that time.
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent of development of large (5 hectares or greater) residential sites in the Kitakyushu district from a geomorphological point of view. The results are summarised as follows. 1. Development of large residential sites in this district began around 1960, became intensified between 1965 and 1978, slowed down in 1979 and 1980 but has intensified again (Table 1). 2. The total number of large residential sites developed in this district is 155, and the total area developed is 3,574.9 hectares. 3. The geomorphological locations in which large residential sites have been developed are classified as 1) hills without summit planes (mostly composed of non-granitic rocks), 2) hills with summit planes (composed of granitic rocks and Palaeogene deposits), 3) terraces (Pleistocene), and 4) lowlands (Holocene alluvial plains). The area of large residential site development is 580.9 hectares in hills without summit planes, 2,477.3 hectares in hills with summit planes, 251.9 hectares in terraces, and 265.0 in lowlands. 4. The large residential sites in hills and terraces are reclaimed by the method of cutting spurs and filling valleys, maintaining a balance between the quantities of cut and fill. 5. Data were obtained on areas and quantities of earth moved in 33 residential sites in order to calculate the quantities of earth moved artificially for the development of large residential sites in this district. The mean depth of cut earth in hills without summit planes composed of non-granitic rocks is 7.0 metres, 12.6 metres in hills without summit planes composed of granitic rocks, 6.4 metres in hills with summit planes of the Ashiya group, 7.1 metres in hills with summit planes of the Nogata group, and 4.8 metres in terraces. The area of cut earth (1,383 hectares in total) is multiplied by the mean depth in each case. Thus the amount of earth moved in this district is about 93,000,000 m^3; and the mean depth of cut earth is 6.9 metres.
The Suo-Nada is located in the western part of Seto Inland Sea. This paper describes regional difference in beach ridge development along the northern coast of the Suo-Nada, about 90km long from east to west, based on interpretation of aerial photographs and field works. In some of the small coastal lowlands between Fushino River and Asa River three series of beach ridges are recognized, while the number of ridges decreases both eastward and westward from this region (Fig. 2). At the coastal lowlands where three series of beach ridges develop, the burried valley floors are gentle (Fig. 7) and the marine terrace develops widely and continuously (Fig. 5). So the gentle offshore profile develops, as a precondition for formation of beach ridges, even if supply of sediments is little. In addition, the coast consists of relatively weak rock such as Tertiary (Fig. 4), so that abundant sediments have been supplied from the retreating sea cliff. For this reason the gentle offshore profile has developed soon after the sea-level reached around the present level, about 6000 y.B.P., and beach ridges were built at each of the three periods of high stands of sea-level. On the other hand, at the coastal lowlands where two series of beach ridges or single beach ridge develop, the burried valley floors are steep and burried marine terrace is fragmentarily distributed, moreover these coast consist of hard rock which causes less material supply. On these condition development of gentle offshore profile had delayed, therefore beach ridges could not be built in early stage of late Holocene.