The part-time senior high school is gradually changing its nature. Night schools for working youths are becoming what is called a "saucer" to absorb spillover students from day schools. At the same time they are also places which absorbs not only students of low scholastic abmty, but also students who refuse to attend school, have lost their parents, are unstable in mind and body, or have become handicapped. In this paper the author would like to report on his practices in geography lessons in which he has tried to arouse interest, and expectations in students, and in which he wants his students to become aware of changes of circumstances in their own region. Four "pillars" for classroom practice are described; that is, working study using "handmade" print, the confirmation and building up of elementary skills, excursions, and the learning of place names. There have been few studies on elementary skius in geography. So-called elementary skius are not just mental faculty and knowledge, but skius which can get over what is psychologically called "the wall of age ume" caused by a delay m the practical experiences of life for the child. The sumrnary of this paper is as follows: 1. In the working study, "handmade" prints are distributed in every class hour in parallel with the text book. A sheet of printed material is given to each student and also a hint is given to students so that they can guess an answer and write them in parentheses. Answer sheets are presented to the teacher. In commentary on the correct answers, the teacher fumishes date which is interesting to the students. 2. Conceming elementary skills, the teacher tries to make students understand the difference between various life styles in the Odawara districts, to make students draw a road map of companies, offices and school; to make students write geographical descriptions of the Ashigara district in Kanagawa Prefecture; to make students prepare for a test on the place narnes of cities, towns, and villages, urban and rural districts, current topics, and the geographical description of special products in Japan. It is important for us to understand that elementary skills cannot be built up simply by the repetition of the lessons of primary school. 3. The theme of the excursion is the flooding of the Sakawa River and the utilization of underground water. The purpose of the excursion is to give students a living and practicai geographical lesson. 4. It is important that the learning of place names not be carried out by memory work only, but be of practical use, giving the place names of cities, towns, villages, and Prefectures, and the origin of the place names. The basic principles of gergraphy lessons in the part-time high school are not the preparation of students for entrance to university. Emphasis must be on the unit leaming of practicai matters. The above example of the practice in iessons will be useful for part-time high schools in the process of rapid change.
The writers tried to distinguish the ponds (Blanken) (most of them are 2-3 meters in diameter) on the Midagahara lava plateau from aerial photographs (color positive films on a scale of I to 15,000 published by the Geographical Survey Institute and a black-and-white positive film on a scale of I to 20,000 published by the Forestry Agency) with special reference to their image processing. The results are shown below. (1) In three small investigation areas settled on grass land on the Midagahara lava plateau, most of the ponds could be distinguished on the monitor pictures by raising the magnification of the camera unit to the size of 70-120 and adjusting the slice level of the apparatus. In this case, most of the ponds were shown as group O (darkest tone =black color) on the monitor pictures. The smallest ponds found by this method were about 1 meter in their minor axis. On the other hand, about the distinction of the vegetation around the ponds, it could be interpreted on that particular occasion that the difference of light intensity among the vegetation groups was clear like, for example, the difference found between Narthecium asiaticum Maxim. and its surrounding vegetation groups in autumu. (2) Then the writers tried to distinguish the ponds in the extended large investigation areas by the same method. As a result, about 900/0 of the black indications found to be the same as group O on the monitor pictures, proved to be real ponds and the remaining 100/0 were trees, bare rocks or others. However, the latters could be mostly distinguished from the ponds by means of their scales and characteristic features. In addition, we could not find any big difference between color and black-and-white positive films as to the interpretation of the ponds and the vegetations by this method.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the land use patterns in the former built-up area of Hiroshima city. Urban land use is one of the most significant indices to investigate the internal structure of the city. The author tried to analyze the complicated spatial urban land use patterns applying the quantitative method. At the frst, using the land use map in the adrninistrative area of old Hiroshima on a scale of I to 2,500, published by the Hiroshirna municipal office, he measured areal proportions of land use categories in each unit area by digityzer. He classified these proportions of each mixed areas into major types applying the modified Weaver's method (Doi Model, 1970). He also identffied the major land use types and compared these types with current land use zoning prescribed by Municipal Office. The results are summarized as follows: l) The residential and industrial land use are centrifugal, on the other hand business and commercial use are centripetal. And the industrial land use is more centrifugal, the business land use is more centripetal. 2) The proportions of the areas devoted to residential, business-commercial and industrial land uses vary not merely with distance but also with direction from the city core. 3) Land uses are arranged from the core to the periphery as foHows. The administrative districts (the southern part and the northern part), the business and residential districts (the southeastern part and the northwestern part) are located around the business and commercial districts. Outward from these districts, follow the mixed district of the education-welfare facilities and residence. Towards the outside, there lie the mixed districts of residences and industries, the mixed districts of residences and transportation-warehouses. In the periphery of the study area, residences are dorninant exept for districts of heavy industry and transportation-warehouses along the coast. 4) In the zone between 1.5 and 3.5km radius from the city core, the mixed districts of residences and small industries are prevalent, and there clearly can be seen obsolete wooden houses. However, obsolete wooden houses are especially concentrating in the transitional zones from the commercial to residential or in those from the residential to industrial area. These are mixed districts consisted of various iand uses such as houses, apartment houses, business offlces and transportation-warehouses. 5) Comparing these land use types with the land use zoning in the city planning areas of the city, both types are incompatible and there are many land uses which are prohibited by the city planning.