GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 43 , Issue 1
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • KAZUKO UCHIDA
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 1-17
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Most of the villages along the Tsurumi River running through mainly in Yokohama City has been suffered from its frequent floodings. Even in the Edo Era we can recognize this phenomenon according to many historical records. The cost of flood control works in later Edo Era mostly depended on direct payment of dwellers, because the Edo Shogunate and its feudal clans were in financial difficulties. The author studied how the dwellers in the Tsurumi River Basin bore the cost of flood control works in later Edo Era, and she intended to clarify a kind of dwellers' response to flood. This can be a useful suggestion for us to make the present and coming flood control plans that will surely be more comprehensive and expensive. The dwellers in the Tsurumi River Basin founded their peculiar reserved fund named "jouzaraekikin" and they had practiced periodical works for flood control by its interest. Thirty one villages in the river basin payed their allocation money in proportion to their rice yield. But the villages in the lower reaches where flood risk was higher had to pay twice as much allocation per standard area as those in the upper reaches. This is a typical way of beneficiary burden. Local office of the Tokugawa Shogunate managed the fund. However large scaled construction for flood control depended on the debt borrowed from the Shogunate besides the money of the villages. The village dwellers appropriated their interest of the fund for repayment. While all the interest were appropriated for repayment, all the works for flood control were practiced by newly collected money from the villages (jibushin). The ways of share in these cases were various for example beneficiary burden, equal burden and so on. In 1843 abolition of the reserved fund for flood control (shihougae) was announced by the Tokugawa Shogunate. All the villages supported this fund were firmly opposed to abolition and they founded new fund with less interest. In Meiji Restoration its principal approximated 2000 Ryo. At the end of the Edo Era and at the beginning of Meiji Era large scaled construction for flood control was planned making use of the principal. But it was in vain. The author cannot find the record as regards the fund yet after the beginning of the Meiji Era.
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  • JINADASA KATUPOTHA
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 18-36
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Geomorphic and geologic evidence shows four different stages (Stage I-IV) in the evolution of coastal landforms on the west coast of Sri Lanka during the late Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs. The author assumes that the old ridges in Stage I at Sembukulama, Kiriyankalliya, Pambala, Wirahena, Uluambalama and Kadirana areas have been formed preceding the Holocene transgression. Low hills and ridges in the area were coated mainly by wind blown sand, following the lower sea levels during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Epochs. Radiocarbon datings on the west and south coasts reveal that the sea level remained 1 m or more above the present sea level between 6170±70 and 5350±80 yr B. P. During this transgression, the former drainage basins were submerged and headland bay beaches were created. Many wetlands and beach ridges, particularly in Stages II, III, and IV were gradually formed owing to minor oscillations of sea level after mid-Holocene. Most of these landforms have a close relationship with main climatic zones of the country.
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  • CLEM TISDELL, SHUNJO TAKAHASHI
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 37-50
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • SHUNSUKE YAO
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 51-62
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the changing aspects of rural community and the present significance of common forest in Japanese suburban village. Before the Second World War, Common forest played an important role in producing firewood and manure, and functioned as a tie of the Japanese village community. Although Central Government has tried to abolish the common forest since the Meiji era, the common forest survived in no small quantities. But today villages don't rely on the common forest for getting fuel and fertilizer, so most of common forest has become valueless. But some remain valuable as a result of the recorgnization of the ownership and use. Rural community in Suburban area has been changed rapidly under the effect of urbanization, especially by the coming of non farming household and the increase of part-time farm-household. Such compositional changes of residents in rural community have brought decrease of "Michibusin" (cooperative maintenance works of village roads) and "Yoriai" (the villagers' periodical meetings on the community matters). Hisayama-cho is a suburban village which is located in Fukuoka metropolitan area. Although part time farm household has increased, "Michibusin" and "Yoriai" continue and are hold more frequently than other nearby villages. In 1970 the authority of Hisayama established City Planning Area all over the town and 96. 7% of its area was designated as Urbanization Control Zone. So urban land use has been restricted strictly and only two housing estates have been developed untill now. There are a small number of non-farm family newly coming to Hisayama-cho. City planning Area controls the number of new comers which is supposed to weaken the tie of village community. Therefore it can be said that City Planning Area keeps unity of the village community in Hisayama. The Author made a questionnaire survey to residents in two communities which have common forest. He analysed the attitude of residents toward the village community. The results are as follows; 1. In Hisayama, native residents voluntarilly follow the traditions and customs of the village community. On the other hand, the longer the newcomers live, the more cooperatively they come to follow the customs of the village community, if they remain as minority in the community. 2. Most of residents are concerned with the common forest when the benefits from it are spent for the community. Those who realize the significance of the common forest keep a strong sense of belonging to the community. So it can be said that the common forest still functions, in part, as a tie of the village. 3. On the other hand, the unity of the village community influences the continuance of the common forests and the use of benefits from them. We can find an interaction between the common forest and the village community.
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  • Y TOMATSURI
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 63-69
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 70-
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Download PDF (200K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 71-
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Download PDF (172K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 72-
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Download PDF (194K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 73-
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Download PDF (172K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 74-75
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 76-
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Download PDF (27K)
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: January 28, 1988
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Download PDF (27K)
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