The writer investigated the dissolving process of a flood prevention cooperative in frequently inundated area from the viewpoint of flood prevention imposition system. The author took the case of the Tsurumi River Flood Prevention Cooperative. She analyzed and considered its flood prevention expense. The consequences are as follows: 1. In the imposition system, the dues were collected from many objects which were classified into three ranks according to their flood risk. However the objects were integrated into two kinds and the rate became uniform, because flood risk dwindled on account of river improvement works. 2. Many people migrated to the river basin considered the dues of the cooperative as the dual payment of tax and most of them did not pay the dues. Since the due payer became less year by year especially after 1965, revenue of the cooperative became to depend highly on subsidies from local governments. 3. Major expenditure of the cooperative changed from managing cost to guarding expenses and reserve funds, because urbanization caused the increase in floods. Consequently the cooperative became unable to maintain itself financially and was dissolved. It was reorganized as "the Flood Prevention Association" run by subsidy from the municipality. The factors behind these phenomena were rapid urbanization, river improvement works and change of dwellers sense on flood prevention.
K. Misawa (1885-1937) was a scholar who attempted to build up the scientific geography in Japan in 1920's-1930's. Not having attended university or even secondary school, he studied by himself and formed his own academic features while teaching in Suwa Middle School in Nagano Prefecture. In this paper, the writer divides Misawa's research activities into several periods, and proves that both Misawa's concept on the nature of geography and his researches on the foot of Mt. Yatsugatake show qualitative changes through these periods. Moreover, he discusses the relation of these changes to the academic environment and social conditions in those days. His studies on human geography became his major concern from 1926 in various fields of his research activities. Misawa discussed the nature of geography in his own terms, the "power of region" and the "phenomena influenced by the surface of the earth". He also did field work and historical studies from the economic geographical point of view. It certainly seems that during this period. Misawa was closest to Michitoshi Odauchi (1875-1954), who highly estimated Misawa's arguments on the "power of region" Misawa, from about 1929 to about 1933, discussed the nature of geography m such terms as "geographic al landscape", "regional characteristics", and "geographical region", which were the main current terms m those days. And he presented the results of area studies where he used the concept of landscape frequently. The mutual communication on "geographical landscape" between Misawa and Taro Tsujimura (1890-1983) can be recognized. The communication on "regional characteristics" and "geographical region" between Misawa and Keiji Tanaka (1885=1975) can also be recognized. These facts show that Misawa was most deeply concerned with the main current of the geographical circle in those days. His discussions on both the nature of geography and regional landscape study show his orginality and farseeingness. He must have caused a fair sensation in the circle. But he could not manage to change the current of the central circle. In the sight of the history of his own study, the retreat of historical considerations in his area studies is perceptible, and his studies seem to have been more or less affected by the main current of landscape study at this time. At the end of 1933 when Misawa came to use the term "climatic characteristics" instead of "regional characteristics", he came to walk along his own way and paid less attention to the central circle than before. "Climatic characteristics" , which is a little different from "regional characteristics", stems from an ecological concept. He went into rural mountain villages in extreme depression with this concept in mind, and urged on the villagers the necessity of regional promotion by means of productions and ways of life suitable for their climate. Though the middle of 1930's was the heyday of landscape-geography in Japan, he parted from it and attempted to fulfill his responsibilities as a geographer in the actual world.