The purpose of this paper is to reveal the pattern and process of vegetation landscape in relation to change in the social system in a mountainous area. All of Hiwa-cho (subdivided into 9 sections), a farm village in the Chugoku Mountain range, was examined in this research. The actual vegetation map of Hiwa-cho drawn at a scale 1:25,000 (as of 1988) was analyzed by each of the vegetation units, i.e. the number of all vegetation units and their sizes were measured. Then three representative sections (Oppara, Kowada, and Nunomi) were selected and their distribution patterns of vegetation units were analyzed in detail. Social change in the area was examined and measured through statistical books and interviews. These results were as follows: 1. Among the nine sections, as large as the ratio of paddy fields, the number of vegetation units were increased. Namely, the section with larger paddy fields has more vegetation units, therefore its degree of landscape diversity was enhanced. The small vegetation units were located nearby paddy fields. This pattern is caused by the subdivision of the Quercetum variabili-serratae and small units of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa plantations in an abandoned meadow of the Arundinello-Miscanthion sinensis. This meadow had been used for mowing. Each farmer had the dispersed meadows connected with paddy fields. After the revolutionary change of fuel and fertilizer, it has been treated in different manners. As a result, it produced the diverse vegetation landscape. 2. The large vegetation units were distributed far from paddy fields. These units originated from the territory of served coppice forests for "Tatara" steal manufacture, cooperative pastures, and public forests. It seems that forests of every height class of the Castaneo-Quercetum crispulae (same as Q. mongolica var. grosseserrata) and the Quercetum variabili-serratae used to be distributed mosaically in this territory as coppice forests. At the present, this area consists of large units of the Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa plantations, and tall tree forests of the Castaneo-Quercetum crispulae and the Quercetum variabiliserratae. The secondary succession from the GerarLio-Zoysietum japonicae to the Saussureo-Miscanthetum sinensis occurred at the pasture where the grazing pressure of cattle was less. 3. The Castaneo-Quercetum crispulae and the Aralio-Rubetum crataegifolli grew at the slopes of more than 700m altitude, and the Quercetum variabili-serratae and the Mallotus japonicus community were distributed at less than 700 m in Hiwa-cho. This is one of the causes which increase the diversity of vegetation landscape. Even in similar size sections, the diversities of vegetation units were different because of these topographical and climatic factors.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the competition between producing areas of rush (Juncus Effusus) and the causes of changes of leading rush producing areas. Until the late 1960's Okayama Prefecture and Hiroshima Prefecture of the Sanyo region had been leading production areas of rush in Japan. For example, the planted areas of rush in Okayama Prefecture were 3,200ha in 1955. This figure accounted for 52.2% of the total planted areas in Japan, followed by 11.9% in Kumamoto Prefecture, 11.4% in Hiroshima Prefecture, 8.5% in Fukuoka prefecture, and 5.10;~o in Ishikawa prefecture. But this situation has changed since the late 1960's. So those leading rush producing areas have been obliged to readjust themselves to a new situation. As the domestic situation is concerned, the changes of these areas were caused by the high economic growth in Japan, regional development, and competition between producing areas of rush. As for international situation, import of cheap rush products from Taiwan and other countries has rapidly increased. Therefore it has become difficult to increase the domestic demand of rush products. Thus Kumamoto Prefecture, Fukuoka Prefecture, and Kochi Prefecture have become leading rush producing districts in Japan. On the other hand, Okayama Prefecture and Hiroshima Prefecture have experienced a rapid decrease in rush production. For example, in 1965 the planted areas in Okayama Prefecture and Kumamoto Prefecture respectively accounted for 41.9% and 29.5% of the total planted areas of rush in Japan, while in 1975 their figures accounted for 6.8% in Okayama Prefecture and 58.4% in Kumamoto Prefecture. As of 1985 the planted area of Kumamoto Prefecture accounts for 75.5% of the total planted area of rush in Japan. As a result, Kumamoto Prefecture has become the largest producing area of rush in Japan. The regional economy was seriously affected by the above-mentioned collapse of rush production. So the main rush producing areas in Okayama Prefecture have been obliged to readjust themselves to a new situation. They have turned to the manufacture of high-grade rush goods and the industrialization of rush production. The local capital, which has collapsed rush production, has made efforts to expand the processing industries and circulation of rush products. Thus the leading rush producing areas in Okayama Prefecture have successfully come to depend more on the other areas for economy and accumulate local riches.
The paper sketches recent attempts to construct three-dimensional maps using personal computers. Three-dirnensinal map has some advantages in the representation of quantitative data. So any simple method to construct it w~ contribute to geographical study and education. Three-dirnensional maps for point data (DTM) have been well studied in physical geography, in human geography it is also important to visualize areal data aggregated in some districts (prism map). The author proposed one simple algorithm to construct prism map for grid type data. The shadow line elimination technique for drawing prism maps on grid type data is simple and has two case configurations essentially (Fig. 5). Using this technique I presents one example of Basic program (PRISM) that is consisted of only 200 statements (Fig. 2). Two outputs of 'PRISM' are presented; Fig. 6 shows sample data output, while Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 show the average hight of commercial buildings in OSAKA city area. Prism maps are especialy effective in the following two cases ; first to illustrate 'hight' attribute in urban area, second to illustrate discontinuously distributed valiables such as popuration in rural area.