GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 46 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages Cover1-
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages App1-
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Masashisa HAYASHI
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 55-74
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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    The Matsue and the lu Plains are narrow alluvial lowlands located around Matsue, Shirnane Prefecture. The Matsue Plain, facing to the eastern margin of Lake Shinjiko, extends about 4 krn east-west and 2.5 krn north-south. On the other hand, the lu Plain, facing to the southwestern end of Lake Nakaumi, extends about 5 km east-west and 3 km north-south. Both plains are neighboring to each other and are fronting on R. Ohashigawa which flows from L. Shinjiko to L. Nakaumi. The location map of the study area is shown in Fig. 1. Landiorm evolution of alluvial lowlands has been studied in both plains on the basis of the topography and the stratigraphy of alluvial deposits. The geomorphological maps of the plains are shown in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively, where deltas, sand bars and abandoned river courses ar~ clearly demarcated. The alluvial deposits in the Matsue Plain can be divided into five members as follows; Basal Gravel, Lower Clay, Nakaurni Layer, Nakaumi Sand and Uppermost Layer from the bottom to the top. In the lu Plain, they can be divided into six members as follows; Adakae Gravel, Basal Gravel, Iu Clay, Iu Gravel, Nakaurni Layer and lugawa Layer frorn the bottom to the top. The Basal Gravel consists of cobbles with sand, and was forrned according to the lower stand of sea level during the epoch of Last Glacial Age. This was covered with fine materials containing glass shards originated in Aira Tn ash (AT; erupted ca. 25,000 y. B.P.). The Lower and the lu Clays were fine sediments which were caused by a rising sea level during a certain stage later than 25,000 y. B.P.. The Nakaumi Layer is composed of marine silt and clay deposited during the epoch of Postglacial transgression. Volcanic glasses of Kikai Akahoya ash (K-Ah; erupted ca. 6,300 y.B.P.) were always contained between the lower and the middle parts of this layer. The Adakae and the lu Gravels consist of coarser fluvial sedirnents. They were formed according to the lower stands of sea level during two different stages; the former in the further earlier period than 31,000 y.B. P. and the latter in a short time of Late Glacial, respectively. The lugawa and the Uppermost Layers are fluvial deposits formed after 3,200 y. B.P.. The landform evolution of the study area since the Last Glacial Age, is sumrnarized as follows: (1) The sea level started to ascend after the regression of the Last Glacial Age. Although, a temporary regression episode occurred during the Late Glaciai period in the lu Plain, where an alluvial fan was formed. (2) During the Postglacial transgression a deep inlet was formed, where Lakes Shinjiko and Nakaumi were linked to the sea and isolated the northern Shimane Peninsula from the main land. The Nakaumi Layer characterized by fine sediments in the deltaic condition were deposited according to this transgression. In the time between 6,000 and 5,000 y. B.P., the sea level ascended 2 to 3 m higher than the present sea level, and sand bars were formed in relation to this sea level. (3) Subsequentiy, the sea level lowered and the Delta surface I emerged. This regression occurred earlier than 3,200 y.B.P. and continued probably later than 2,400 y. B.P.. The sea descended at least 2 m below the present sea level. At the time, rivers dissected the Delta surface I, depositing the lugawa (Uppermost) Layer on the river channels and partly on the bottom of lakes as deltaic sediments. (4) After the period, the sea level has approximately become the present state, forming the Delta surface 11 m front of the Delta surface I Until the time of the "Izumo no kurn Fudoki", an ancient regional geography wntten about early 8th century, the Delta surface 11 had almost emerged in the lu Plain, although it had not yet sufficiently been formed in the Matsue Plain, where a shalbw lagoon remained till the begiuning of modern age.
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  • HIROFUMI KITAGAWA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 75-92
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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    Since the second oil crisis, the structure of manufacturing industry in Japan has changed remarkably. Process industries, formerly leading sectors, have staguated, while assembly industries such as automobile and electricai machinery industries have grown and expanded rapidly. Such a restructuring of industries and macroeconomy restructuring, for example shifting from manufacturing industries to service industries, have caused the various kinds of regional problems in the cities which had specialized in manufacturing activity until the second oil crisis. It is needed to analyze the cities comprehensively which have been affected by the above restructuring process in the lower economic growth period. The purposes of this paper are (1) to clarify the spatial pattern of those cities using the index of manufacturing specialization in 1972 and 1986, and (2) to examine the chainging spatial pattern of those cities between 1972 and 1986. The author classified those cities based on the index of manufacturing specialization and the ratio of employment change in order to analyze this chainging pattern. The results are suJnrnarised as follows: (1) The cities in Tokyo Metropolitan Region and Nagoya Metropolitan Region have much specialized in manufacturing activity in 1986, while Keihanshin Metropolitan Region and Setouchi Region have declined. (2) The cities in Tokyo Metropolitan Region and Nagoya Metropolitan Region have specialized in assembly industries in accordance with the restructuring of manufac-turing, while the cities in Keihanshin Metropolitan Region and Setouchi Region have been dominated by process industries such as shipbuilding and chemical industry. The decline of manufacturing activity in the latter region has been caused by those industrial characteristics. (3) In southern Tohoku Region, the index of manufacturing specialization has tended to go upward from 1972 to 1986 due to the increasing manufacturing employment of electrical machinery. In northern Kanto Region, the number of manufacturing employment has increased, but the index of manufacturing specialization has not gone upward as southern Tohoku Region. These are caused mainly by the macroeconomy restructuring such as growing service industries in nothern Kanto Region. Some scholors said that manufacturing activity had decentralized after the second oil crisis, but this paper revealed that this activity had concentrated at eastern Japan, especially in Tokyo Metropolitan Region.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 93-119
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 120-
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 120-122
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 122-124
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 125-132
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • B Misra
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 133-136
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 137-
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 138-139
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages App2-
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages Cover3-
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages Cover4-
    Published: 1991
    Released: April 27, 2017
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