This paper describes the domestic commodity traffic to and from Nagoya during the early stage of industrialization in Japan (from Taisho era to early Showa era, 1920s and 1930s), focussing on the existence and the expansion of the Chukyo-sphere and the fluctuation of the in- and out-freight area each of 53 items during this period. Nagoya was a large castle town during Tokugawa era, but its economic sphere of influence was confined within its territorial area, while Edo (Tokyo) and Osaka were already retaining the nation-wide market. The author revealed the Chukyo-sphere had grown up to one of the three metropolitan areas in 1922, through an analysis of the domestic freight dealt with Nagoya at this period, comparing that of Tokyo and Osaka. Secondly, the author investigated the fluctuation of the in- and out-freight area each of 53 items in 1922 and 1937. In addition, freight volume and transport distance of 53 items categorized in the freight were investigated using regression analysis. By 1922, Nagoya had already grown up to one of the three metropolitan areas, although its hinterland called Chukyo-sphere, was smaller in area comparing with that of Tokyo and Osaka. Nagoya got a firm market for out-flow commodities in Nagano, Gifu and Aichi Prefectures, while Shizuoka Prefecture remained as a competitive area with Tokyo, and Mie Prefecture with Osaka (Fig. 1). On the other hand, Gifu, Aichi and Mie Prefectures were included as the hinterland of Nagoya for in-flow of commdities (Fig. 2). As for the out-flows of the commodities in 1922, rice, wood and most of industrial items were transported nation-wide. Most of agricultural products were distributed Inside Honshu. Stone and gravel were scarcely transported from the city (Table 3). In terms of in-flow of commodities, most of agricultural products were gathered from Hokkaido and Honshu, while most of industrial items from Honshu and Kyushu (Table 5). Transport distance and freight volume are usually explained by the gravity model, and the less volume is transported for the longer distance. However, this was not always the case for the commodity flows to and from Nagoya known from in- and out-freight items in 1922 (Tables 4 and 6). Flows of agricultural products and heavy low-priced raw materials generally showed higher distance resistance among in-freight items. On the other hand, flows of fuel showed less or no distance resistance among in-freight items, and that of machinary among out-freight items. The year of 1937 was one of the years which Japan enjoyed the highest industrial production before World War II. In this year, flows of many commodities indicated large expansion of market comparing that of 1922 (Fig. s 3 and 4, Tables 7 and 8). As shown in out-flow of many items increased their markert, suggesting that Nagoya, at this period, made a firm foundation as one of the three metropolitan area in Japan. However, certain flows such as that of out-flow of fuel indicates the city lost its hinterland. The reason for this case, Nagoya lost Shizuoka Prefecture as its hinterland because of the development of Shimizu Port, and going into shifts unloading fuel port for the demand of Shizuoka Prefecture to Shimizu Port.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the general characteristics of the agricultural developments after the independences in Algeria and Cote d'Ivoire, using the methods of comparative geography. In this paper, the agricultural policies of both gorvernment are mainly compared. The results of this research summaried as follows. After the independence, Government of Algeria took the socialistic policy. The Government nationalized colonial farms and transformed them into state farm called "Self-managed farm" ("L'exploitation agricole autog6r6e"). The policy was failed, and the farms were broken up in 1988. On the other hand, the Government promoted industrialization depended on the oil-income. But, the policy of industrialization was also failed. These led to the great increase of unemployment and food import. After the independence, Cote d'lvoire made high economic growth at 6.2% per annum. The growth was brought from increase of the export of coffee and cocoa. The Government took the policy of capitalism. Coffee and cocoa are cultivated by peasants. They have made the effort to increase the products. The Government has tried to cultivate sugar-cane and soy beans under the Government-managed companies. These companies have been failed. After the year of 1977, the international price of coffee and cocoa have come down. Many political and economic ploblems have occured. Present world economic system is not so profitable to the developing countries.