GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 49 , Issue 4
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Appendix
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages App2-
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages App3-
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Toshihiro OKADA
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 197-212
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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    In Japan, the academism geography came into existence after the creation of the courses of geography at the Imperial University of Kyoto in 1907 and at the Imperial University of Tokyo in 1911. In the history of geographical study before that time, Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944)'s Jinsei Chirigaku (Geography of Human Lives, 1903) represented the highest achievement. Since Makiguchi was a teacher of elementary school and normal school at the time when he wrote this book, its own purpose was to improve geography teaching. In those days of Japan, however, both the education and the study of geography were not specialized. Therefore, Makiguchi thought himself that they were directly connected with each other. For this reason, the purpose of this book was not only improvement in teaching geography at school, but also enlightenment of the public in general and social advancement. Makiguchi beated his brains about this book and wrote it during the period between the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). During that period, the conflict between Japan and Western countries came up to the surface, because Japan committed the aggressive act of invasion against the East Asian countries. In the state of these affairs, Makiguchi took a stand against the ultra-nationalism of Shigetaka Shiga (1863-1927) and the philanthropism of Kanzo Uchimura (1861-1930), furthermore he was closely related with some socialists for a while. Then he groped for his own thoughts. In the first and the second chapter of this book, he stated problems from the point of view of environmentalism. It was a general tendency of geographical study of those days. However, as he stated plainly that the quality of man-land relationship varies with the differences of cultural level, his advanced ideas are worthy of note. His description of the relationship between sea and human life, is especially vivid. That results from his experience of living in the districts along the shores of the Japan Sea: Niigata prefecture (Kashiwazaki) and Hokkaido (Otaru and Sapporo). The main subject of this book is in the third chapter. The subject has a deep significance, above all, present-day significance because he studied economic geography, social geography, and political geography from the viewpoint of both the theory on distribution and location theory. Especially, it is worthy of note that he introduced the isolated state by von Thunen for geographical study for the first time in Japan. However, he did not faithfully introduce the original. He tried to absorb it in due consideration of the application of a principle to practice. His method of study made a special feature of the intention of application and practice, and also the tendency to practical science. As mentioned above, this book took the initiative in the study of human geography, and had a deep significance of present day. Non-academism geographers praised this book very much, on the other hand, academism geographers treated lightly or ignored this book. Michitoshi Odauchi (1875-1954) was a human geographer of non-government school factions after the times when the academism geography came into existence. Odauchi was active with Makiguchi in Kyodo-kai (the society for rural studies, 1910-about 1919; 1927-1931), of which key person was Inazo Nitobe (1862-1933). Nevertheless, Odauchi had not referred to this book. Probably because it gives such suggestions that the academism geography did not much succeed to the outcome of the pre-academism geography in Japan.
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  • Nagayoshi IKEUCHI
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 213-234
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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    It is possible to find out about the rice crops in lean years by studying the reductions in land taxes. In this paper, the auther focuses on land taxes as indices of the crops and elucidates the distribution of the reductions in land taxes in Kyushu, Chugoku and Shikoku district where there were regions severely hit by planthopper damage. The Shogunate government granted loans to feudal lords whose land tax in Kyoho 17 (1732) was less than half of their normal land tax. In Kyushu, Chugoku and Shikoku, loans were granted to all independent clans located within the following boundaries; the southern boundary lay on the south of the Takanabe and Hitoyoshi Clans, and the eastern lay to the east of the Mori and Tosa Clans. With regard to the Chikugo Kurume Clan, Nakatsu Clan (Buzen Domain, Chikuzen Domain, Bingo Domain), Bungo Oka Clan and the lzumo Matsue Clan, clans and domains can be arranged as follows in order of the rate of reduction of their land taxes: Nakatsu Chikuzen Domain, Kurume Clan, Nakatsu Buzen Domain, Matsue Clan, Nakatsu Bingo Domain, Oka Clan. In the villages of the Karatsu Domain, the Fukuoka Domain, the Kokura Domain, the Buzen Domain of the Nakatsu Clan and the Bungo Domain of the Nobeoka Clan, the land taxes paid for the paddy fields dropped to less than 10% of the Harumendaka. There were, however, villages in the long, narrow valleys of the interior where the drop was small. In the Bungo Domain and the Buzen Domain, some villages paid no land taxes for their padday fields although the fall was small compared to villages on private lands. All the villages however, were entirely exempted from paying taxes for their plowed fields. As for the villages in Aki and Bingo in the San'yo belt, there was a great reduction in the land taxes of the Aki villages, marking a sharp contrast with those of Bingo. Among the villages of Bicchu, there were large drops in the land taxes paid by the Shogunate domains while there were little reductions in the land taxes paid by private domains. In the Shogunate domain of Mimasaka, the drop in the eastern part was smaller than that in the western. In the lzumo Matsue Clan and the Shogunate domain of Iwami in the San'in belt, though there were some villages which paid no land taxes for their paddy fields, the land taxes paid for the plowed fields were the same amount as the Jomen. The ratios of the land taxes for the paddy fields and plowed fields in the Hamada Clan are not clear, yet the reductions in their land taxes are almost the same as the overall reduction in the land taxes for both paddy fields and plowed fields in the Shogunate domain of Iwami. In the lyo Matsuyama Clan, priority was given to securing seed rice, which meant that they paid no land taxes. That which could be used as seed rice was presented as tax and compensation was granted instead by the clan in the form of soybeans. In the Ochigun Domain of the Imabari Clan, there were two groups with great reductions in land taxes among the 52 villages located in and around the Imabari plains. As for the villages of the lyo Saijo Domain situated on the Niihama plains, the reductions in their land taxes were extremely small.
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  • K Srinivasa RAO, K Nageswara RAO, N SADAKATA
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 235-240
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 241-243
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 243-247
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 247-249
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 250-251
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages Toc1-
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages Toc2-
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages App4-
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: 1994
    Released: April 27, 2017
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