The purpose of this paper is to clarify the Chinese citizens' daily-life activity patterns and space, through a case study of Lanzhou City. The present author conducted a travel-diaries survey on Lanzhou citizens during June 1992. Questionnaires were distributed through 'street offices' (街道弁事処) to 300 households mainly composed of working couples. The travel-diaries are of time-use and spatial activity records in one weekday and one holiday. 200 adequate data collected from 100 men and 100 women are analysed for this study. The daily-life activity patterns were formulated by analyses on indexes related to trips by sex and research areas. The time-use data were used for grouping the samples by cluster analysis. The daily-life activity space in each day was examined based on temporal-spatial changes of activities using time-geography approach. The main results obtained are as follows. 1) The citizens' daily-life activity patterns differ completely in weekdays and holidays. In weekdays most of the citizens have outdoor activites for single purpose such as working and recreation, but they make many cycles. The ratio of multi-purpose cycles was only 8 percent of the total. The differences by sex and research areas are not very obvious as that of in Hiroshima's case (Chai, 1993). In holidays, the single-purpose travels for leisure and shopping are main. The characteristics of the citizens' activity patterns are related to the unique DANWEI (単位) organization (Chai, 1991), more travels by bicycle and on foot, and to common two-income families etc. in China. 2) The weekdays' life rhythm has routine activities, such as fixed working hours with no overtime, long lunch breaks and afternoon naps, as well as fewer recreation activities after working hours and more shopping activities before going to home. The holidays' life rhythm is more complex, and is characterized with outdoor leisure and shopping activities before lunch and dinner for men and remarkable house-keeping hours for women. 3) Time-use patterns are classified into six types by a cluster analysis for weekdays and holidays respectively (Table 6). The time-use patterns during weekdays are classified into two types, mainly depending on whether they are employed or not. The employment types consist of W 1, W 2, W 3, W 4 which are classified by the length for working and house-keeping hours. The housewives' two types (W 5 and W 6) are separated by whether they spend their time for outdoor leisure or not. On the other hand, in the time-use patterns during holidays, type H1 which spends 9 hours 30 minutes for recreation is contrast with type W2, which has 7 hours of house-keeping. Excepting type H 6 (holiday worker), the other three types have well-balanced time budgets. It was clarified that the classification based on the time-use pattern is effective to analyse the citizens' daily-life activity patterns and space, especially for weekdays. 4) The weekdays' daily-life activity space of the citizens differs distinctively between the commuters and non-commuters. Most of Lanzhou citizens are non-commuters with close work-home locations, and have their activity space within their working areas and vicinities of their residences. A few commuters with separated work-home locations have their wider activity space to the city core or to the suburbs. 5) In holidays most of the Lanzhou's citizens perform their leisure activities such as exercise, stroll, jogging etc. near their houses within their neighborhoods. This can be named 'natural type' of recreation. 10 percent of the respondents who mainly live in the suburbs go to the core for shopping, visiting restaurant and other recreations, extend their activity space to the core area. 6) Regarding the life space structure of Chinese cities, it can be said that DANWEI is successful to control the citizens' daily-life
This paper examines the formation and locational movement of vegetable production regions within Tokyo Metropolitan Area composed of 350 municipal districts, with reference to location theory of agriculture. In this paper, first, the temporal and spatial changes of vegetable production during the period from 1960 to 1990 are discussed. Secondly, the formation and locational movement of vegetable production regions are analyzed in detail. Thirdly, the major vegetable production regions of Tokyo Metropolitan Area are classified and their characteristics are considered. At prefecture level, the regional differences in the changes in both harvested area and value of production of vegetable production were observed in the Kanto District within which Tokyo Metropolitan Area is included. As regards changes of spatial distribution of vegetable production in Tokyo Metropolitan Area, in 1960s, vegetable production regions with higher intensity are concentrated in and around peripheral built-up area of Tokyo City. The intensity of vegetable production is likely to decrease with increasing distance from there; the Thunen Model of spatial patterns in farming types fits this spatial distribution pattern of vegetable production in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. But, as the urbanized area expanded, the conditions of transportation were improved and the marketing changed in Tokyo Metropolitan Area, the vegetable production regions moved from urban fringe to urban shadow and rural hinterland; the Thunen patterns were no longer held in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. In spatial profile from the center to the edge of Tokyo Metropolitan Area, agricultural land use around the built-up area gets extensive and vegetable production declines in respect of both harvested area and the number of vegetable farmers. And also, an intensive vegetable production region emerged in the 20-30 km belt away from the center of Tokyo. Moreover, a vegetable production region with higher productivity is distributed in the 50-60 km belt (from the center of Tokyo). Therefore, the Bryant Model can be applied to the spatial distribution pattern of vegetable production mentioned-above. The main vegetable production regions of Tokyo Metropolitan Area are thus classified into three types: the maintenance type of suburban agriculture, the higher developed type of non-paddy cultivation and the conversion type from sericulture.