GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 54 , Issue 2
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages Cover1-
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (22K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages App1-
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Atsushi NARUSE
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages 81-98
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    I attempt to regard a novel as a sort of geographical description. This sort of description is a 'topography' in which an author can arbitrarily create a setting, some events, things, and characters, and compose them. In this paper, I pay attention to literary form rather than relations between the text and the author's autobiography and the social context the work was written. In my analysis of Kundera's The Joke first published in 1967 in Czech, two aspects of time and space are considered. 'Character's space', a kind of ideal expansion from the point of view of the narrator, and 'story-time' in which some events are narrated along the story-telling are associated with the narrative structure. Geographical space as the setting and 'discourse-time' as objective time the author supposed are related actual history and geography. Especially, I consider the fact of the novel that four of main characters are narrators, with respect to Bakhtin's notion, "heteroglossia." To grasp the narrative structure of the novel spatiotemporally in this way leads to following implications. One event at the identical point in the geographical space and the story-time in this text could be different from each point in the character's space and the discourse-time. In The Joke, the same event is narrated at several points in the story, and these depictions of it are different from each narrator. Next, I examine the geographical elements in this text which include concepts of point, context, sense of place, landscape depiction, home, and distance. Point in geographical space is body, which is the minimal unit of geographical phenomenon. In literary form to be told a story as a narrator's voice, all geographical elements are depicted through one or few people's bodies. The sense of home place of Ludvik, the protagonist in The Joke, is represented as rancor by many landscape depictions. Viewing Czech from higher point, I can get some symbolic meaning among four places which appear in this text. Prague and Moravia are central role in the text, and the contrast of the two is between city and country. On the other hand, Ostrava and Bohemia are marginal, and this contrast is between dark and light climate. What I had gained through this analysis is not effects of space as ideal extension and geographical descriptions in a novel, but insight into the way how to be constitute a regional writing by some descriptions of persons, things, events, affections, landscapes and so on.
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  • Toshihiro OKADA
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages 99-125
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Jiro Yonekura (1909-) appeared in the Japanese geographical academic world in the early years of the 1930s. He commenced the study of the Jori system and Kokufu in ancient Japan, and Japanese settlements by the method of historico-geographical study. Thus, he was a pioneer in these studies. He studied the Jori system with reference to Chinese land division and settlements in ancient times. He succeeded and developed Takuji Ogawa's (1870-1941, Yonekura's professor at the Imperial University of Kyoto) studies on the subject (Ogawa: Study of Human Geography, 1928; Ogawa: Studies of Historical Geography of China, 1929). Furthermore, he was deeply concerned about administrative planning. Thus, he continued to study the Jori system as rural planning, Kokufu as urban planning, the administrative districts, national land (regional) planning, colonial planning, and Japan's grand planning or the illusion of the New Order in East Asia. It can be said that Yonekura has succeeded Ogawa's method of historico-geographical study. In his historico-geographical view of the world found in the theories about the origin and dispersal of both grid pattern land allotment and agriculture, however, he has come to have a broader perspective than Ogawa, which is due to his attention to India. He achieved this through the studies of India he has pursued since the 1960s. The subjects and the methods of Yonekura's studies after World War II succeeded those before the end of the war. In particular, his historico-geographical studies of the Jori system and Kokufu clearly show them. These studies had a great influence in the academic world of geography, history and archaeology. In geographical associations, particularly, his studies have been succeeded, criticized and developed by many researchers. Meanwhile, Yonekura played a leading part in these studies from an unbending viewpoint on his own basic theory, while he made a partial revision of his own theory. Yonekura has maintained a firm will to study regional planning and political geography from wartime between 1931 and 1945. He advocated comparative study as a method of regional geography after the war, as he considered that comparative regional geography was necessary for regional planning. Thus, he attached importance to the study of regional geography of larger regions than prefectures in Japan. There were few geographers who studied regional geography in Japan, and yet, he studied it with the specific aim of putting it to some use i regional planning. That is concerned with his active interest in political geography. He actively participated in geopolitics in wartime (Yonekura: An Introduction to a Geopolitical Study of East Asia, 1941; Yonekura: Manchuria and China, 1944). For that reason, he was purged from public service from 1947 to 1952. Nevertheless, he advocated the restoration of political geography, after he himself criticized his remarks during wartime in fairly early times of the post-war days. It is indicative of his self-confidence in his geopolitical studies and his firm will to study political geography. The writer considers that a consistent feature of Yonekura's geographical studies is his serious consideration of similar types and his thorough investigation into ideal types. This is clearly shown in his studies of Jori settlements, a number of Kokufu and the ancient capitals of Japan (Yonekura: The Historical Geography of Settlements in East Asia, 1960), and the contemporary villages and the ancient town plans of India (Yonekura: Recent Changes in Settlements in India, 1973). His studies of similar and ideal types covered the studies of their origin and spread, and attained the status of world historical studies. Moreover, his serious consideration of similar types directed his comparative studies, which enabled his studies of comparative regional geography. He studied similar types of Jori

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  • Kaori IKEGAMI
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages 126-137
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Along the coastal area of the Sea of Japan, in and around the Hokuriku district, there are heavy snowfalls in winter. In this region the practice of using "yukimuro" had been prevailing from the Meiji to the early Showa era. The Japanese word "yukimuro" means the traditional storehouse of snow, to keep snow until late summer or autumn. It was made of woods and straw, and a great deal of snow was put inside. Its stored snow was used as refrigerant for food and the sick, and sometimes was eaten together with syrup. Few studies, however, have been undertaken about yukimuro. Therefore, the author has tried to clarify its distribution and historical changes since the 1860's. The author showed that there were about 200 yukimuro in the Hokuriku district. They had been used from the 1860's to the 1960's and this period can be divided into the following six stages. 1) The first rising stage from about 1880's early 1900's due to the increase in the demand of snow for eating. 2) The first declining stage in the 1900's due to the authorities restricting the sales of edible snow. 3) The second rising stage from the 1910's to early 1920's due to the increase in the demand of snow as a refrigerant. 4) The second declining stage at the end of the 1920's due to the increased production of artificial ice. 5) The third declining stage from the 1940's to about 1950's due to the shortage of labourers to make yukimuros; and the authorities restricting sales of snow as refrigerant. 6) The final stage, in the 1960's, of the disappearance of yukimuros was due to the significant increased production of artificial; and the increased availability of electric refrigerators. Advantages of yukimuro were as follows: 1) The snow stored in yukimuro was a better refrigerant than artificial ice for fish. 2) No investment in plant and equipment was needed to make a yukimuro and use its stored snow in contrast with artificial ice. 3) Though the winter is the farmers' slack season in this district, they were able to earn considerable incomes by making yukimuros in the winter. In the past, heavy snowfalls have been considered a hindrance to the progress of modernization in Japan. Now, however, after the heavy snowfall in 1981, active use of snow has become an important subject in high snow accumulation regions. From this point, yukimuro can be regarded as one of the typical "usage of snow" representative of the traditional snow culture of Japan.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages 138-140
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages 140-142
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages 143-152
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages 153-154
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages 155-
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages Cover3-
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (29K)
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages Cover4-
    Published: April 28, 1999
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (29K)
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