Single-parent families are increasing rapidly in urban area in Japan. Most of single-parent families are women-headed families, and mother must have many heavy budgets, for examples getting a job and work, housework, child care and nursing. In spite of the high rent, single-parent families tend to migrate to urban area, because it is easy to get their jobs and they can be free from prejudices. In the case of England and Australia, the residential location of single-parent families is clearly concentrated on several parts in the built-up area. The aims of this article are to clarify the phenomenon of concentration of single-parent families in Tokyo metropolitan region and their housing condition. The next aim is to research the welfare facilities for single-parent families and residents. Furthermore, the author aims to clarify the housing problems for women-headed families and the structure of their housing circumstances. The distribution of high ratio of single-parent families is clearly concentrated in the northern wards and the innercity in Tokyo. And the number of women-headed families also concentrated in northern and near western parts of inner Tokyo. Their distributions are similar to the rate of public housing. That is because public housing gives priority to single-parent families for welfare purpose. The prefectural government of Tokyo constructed some public housing which are specialized for women-headed families. Consequently, single-parent families are concentrated in public housing. But the stock of public housing is seriously short. Most of single families can not live in public housing and must pay high rent in private housing market. Single-parent families usually face some serious housing problems. When women-headed families can not find their house in private housing market or they must be sheltered from domestic violence, some families can live in the welfare facilities for single-parent families. But the welfare facilities are provided only for temporal users. According to the questionnaire from 26 facilities in Tokyo, the age of mother residents in the facilities are 30's and 40's. Most of them became single-parent by divorce. Their jobs are very unstable and low income, because they are part-timers. Some residents can not get jobs by mental disturbance. It is difficult to move out for the welfare facilities. Only half of them can move out when they get the chance to enter public housing. The other residents must stay in the welfare facilities for several years or over ten years.
Moving observations were conducted to detect the changes in the night temperature distribution over the last 20 years, and to confirm the relationship between the inversion layer and the heat island intensity in Kochi, Japan. The results obtained in this study are as follows: (1) Comparing the night temperature distribution from 1998 to 1999 with that of 8 years and 20 years ago, the warm area which appears in the central part of the city tends to have reduced its area. (2) Results of the observations of the inversion layer along Kosaka Pass, temperature is the warmest between 170 meters and 200 meters above sea level. The inversion layer may exist below this level regardless of the season. (3) The intensity of the inversion layer (the temperature gradient for every 100 m) is the highest in winter, and the maximum inversion intensity is 2.6℃. As the temperature becomes warmer, the inversion tends to weaken, and in summer the inversion layer sometimes does not exist. (4) The intensity of the heat island is the highest in winter, and the maximum heat island intensity is 3.9℃. This value is about 1℃ lower than Nagano City and Toyohashi City which have the same population as Kochi City. In summer, the heat island sometimes exists without the inversion layer.