GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 56 , Issue 1
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • Kenji HASHIMOTO, Yoshio ARAI
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 1-20
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In line with the progress in informatization in the distribution structure, a power shift to retailing, chain stores in particular, is rapidly taking place. In the process of responding to this shift in power, consumer goods manufacturers are promoting change in their business structure, which is having a major impact on the functions and locations of branches. A business sytem has been adopted in the business activities of consumer goods manufacturers, under which branches or sales offices have jurisdiction over all territories in their charge, with prefectures as basic units. On the other hand, as informatization makes headway, a switch to a stratified business system is in progress under which departments are changed according to the business types and store networks of client businesses. Under this stratification of the business structure, authority is concentrated in headquarters, as well as in wide-area bases such as branch offices/integrated branch stores, while reorganization of branch stores and sales offices whose relative authority has been reduced is being promoted. Such spatial change is businesses is likely to have major impact on the stratified structure and growth strategy of cities as well. In regional cities where branch stores and sales offices have been specifically targeted for reorganization, a decline in employment and tax revenue, as well as a hollowing-out of city centers, is feared.
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  • Shin KAJITA
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 21-35
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
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    Under recent political and economic changes, many researchers argue that the distributional structure of the local allocation tax, which had favored rural areas strongly, would be transformed. However, there are few studies trying to certify this thesis quantitatively. The purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of the distributional structure and its regional effects. In the first part, for municipalities with a population less than 10, 000 people, we assumed a cost function of the basic fiscal need, which determines the distributional structure of the local allocation tax, as follows: S_i=η_i+ε_i=at_i+b+ε_i ε_i∽N(0, (η_iσ))^2 S_i:basic fiscal need for municipality _i, t_i:population, ε_i:error, a:parameter for variable cost, b:parameter for fixed cost, η_i:expectation of S_i We estimated the function during 1981-1997 using the fiscal data of Nagano prefecture and found the value of b/a in the estimated function turns from increase to decrease in 1989. Therefore, we concluded that the transformation of distributional structure occurred in this year. We think this conclusion is supportable in the following two reasons. The first reason is that special fund allocation for local development named Furusato Sosei 1 okuen jigyo came into effort in 1988 to 1989. The second reason is that the year of 1989 was at the peak of Bubble economy and some extra needs was calculated temporally in the basic fiscal need, using surplus in the local allocation tax account. In the second part, we examined the regional effects of the transformation of the distributional structure using data from 6 village of Kiso district, Nagano prefecture from 1986 to 1999. This analysis opened up the following two facts. First, the effects of the transformation of the distributional structure are inversely proportional to the municipal population. Second, recent increase in the fiscal allocation for forest reservation works on municipalities located in remote mountain areas with large forests.(
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  • Fumio WADA
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 36-55
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purposes of this paper are to analyze and examine geographical skills of the activities of ARGUS (Activities and Readings in the Geography of the United States), which is the core of ARGUS, and to test one of the typical activities from a point of view that geography learning should be a process of aquiring broadly defined geographical skills. It also aims to draw points to innovate on geography learning methods in a Japanese high school. The results are summarized as follows. Since the 80's in the United States of America, the basic ideology of educational reform, which has been led by Federal Government, has been to pursue "an exellence in education" as a measure to deal with the decline in scholastic achievement of high school students, that is, to develop students' abilities as much as possible considering the difference in scholastic abilities. The purposes of totally reformed new curricula are improvement of quality of study and high studying skills such as decision making, inference and creativity. These are necessary to form citizenship. The innovation of geographic education in the United States has followed these principles. Guidelines for geographic education, which described the five fundamental themes of geography as a principle of geographical education, presents geographical skills systematically as study skills in the broad sense for the first time. National Geography Standards, which has improved the skills, is a nationwide guide of high school geography curriculum. ARGUS is an adaptation of the standards in almost all aspects and one of the successful results. The acitivities are inquisitive studies of students by themselves. They aim to encourage students' geographical skills, that is, to faster skills of generalization or persuasive decision making. For example Activities V, "The General Welfare: Dealing with public health hazards", is a practical political geography study and has been tested at the author's 12th class. Each student takes measures against tuberculosis within limited budgetary appropriation as Public Health Service analyst in New York City. This Activities is one of typical Activities of ARGUS, because this political dicision is a study of the highest decision making. Analyzing the maps related to the cause of the disease, the activities aim at not only students' acquisition of an ancillary skill of map reading but their understanding of its meaning. This shows an efficiency and a jusitification of geographical education. According to the test of the activities and the questionnaire to students, it has been proved that the activities deal with the real world and develop creativity of the students. It is an innovative decision making political geography that joins great interest of the students with various scholastic abilities.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 56-58
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 58-61
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (632K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 61-62
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (355K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 63-64
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages App2-
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (463K)
  • Type: Cover
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (26K)
  • Type: Cover
    2001 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: January 28, 2001
    Released: April 20, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (26K)
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