The study of current world issues is emphasized in high school geography and there is the expectation that a citizen-based problem solving ability will be developed. The aim of this paper is to clarify the significance of the study of current world issues in high school geography. In order to accomplish this, firstly, the extent to which a geographical perspective, that is, `a geographical way of thinking,' is effective for problem solving and the limitations of this approach are examined. How to overcome these limitations is also discussed. Secondly, the effectiveness of social studies and development education in the context of lessons encouraging a problem solving approach is discussed. Finally, a new curriculum for studying the population problem is outlined. The following three advantages of the geographical point of view/way of thinking are indicated. Firstly, by changing the scale of analysis between worldwide, country or regional levels and analyzing the issues from a variety of aspects, the multifaceted nature of the issue is revealed. Secondly, by comparing the issues among regions, the elements of the problem that are unique to the area and those that are common to all regions is made clear. Thirdly, a geographical approach can also allow a grasp of regional change. The importance of international cooperation, north south issues, the necessity of establishing policies that reflect the situation of people at a state and regional level, effective value judgments and decision making are encouraged with a geographical approach . On the other hand, the paper also reveals a lack of the process of human awareness in the geographical point of view/way of thinking. If the process of human awareness is included in the lesson, the desires and viewpoints implicit in the problem can be compared with the students' own, allowing an examination of their own way of thinking. Following the above discussion, principles for a lesson plan studying current world issues in geography education are outlined. The feature of this plan is the integration of both a geographical approach and a process of human awareness. In this process of human awareness, students are able to discover similarities between their own culture and another's through a close subjective examination of the parties involved. Additionally, this approach ultimately encourages students to question their own way of living.
Since islands of Okinawa was incorporated into Japan, many Okinawan people have been in a little difficult position. For example, the migrants from Okinawa in the cities of mainland Japan (Hondo) were often discriminated in the employment opportunities. And because islands of Okinawa was ruined in World War II, many Okinawan migrants were left in the mainland, and they had to live in the postwar severe situation. In this paper, I will examine the urban lives of Okinawan migrants in Hyogo prefecture (especially postwar Amagasaki, Takaradsuka, Itami and Kobe city) and their various forms of networks, groups and places to live in and to resist oppressed situation. The association of people from Okinawa prefecture (Okinawa-Kenjinkai-Hyogoken-Honbu) was one of the most cohesive group, it was made by `Okinawa' as a social category and as a symbol of concentration for some social and political purposes. In Amagasaki and Takaradsuka city, these cohesions like Kenjinkai had made it possible for some assemblymen who were native of Okinawa to win the local elections, for example. When the people who lived in the concentrated areas had some political purposes, these areas became the cohesive places to resist their opponents. But these cohesions were ad hoc. Because each migrants lived in different geographical and social context, their each individual living strategies and tactics were complicated, and each migrants had extended their own personal networks which included neighbors who were not native of Okinawa. So even in their concentrated areas, their individual social and political senses were not always in unison. Okinawan migrants had become urbanites in urban settings. It is said that discrimination in the employment opportunities was to some extent eased in the high-growth period, so their lives have changed for the better. And the main role of Kenjinkai have become enhancing mutual friendship.
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the growth and the time-space development of the fishing industry, by which these were produced in Nango Town. Miyazaki Prefecture. To sum up, the results are as follows : The fishing industry in Miyazaki Prefecture has experienced a severe 50% decrease in production in recent ten years. The Nango Fishing Cooperative is a major hub of the fishing industry in this area. The growth of the Nango fishing industry can be divided into four periods, i.e., early period (-1944), post-war reconstruction bonito-tuna fishing initial period (1945-65), growth period (1966-80) , and stagnation period(1981-) . Time-space activity characteristics of bonito fishing vessels include the taxingly repetitive short, 4-5 day voyages, and seasonal eastward advance to the fishing areas of Nango, Katsuura, and Kesennuma. In contrast, tuna fishing vessels take relatively long seagoing voyages of 110 days in duration, mainly in the South Pacific directly below the equator. The problems of this district include declining catches, declining prices for fish, insufficient supply of new manpower, and problems of the cooperative combine. This paper has touched upon certain aspects of the subject, but it is hoped that further reports will deal with further details, including the development of fishing ports, distribution and equipment history of fishing related facilities, and land use of the fishing village. Progress in handling the fishing industry in Miyazaki Prefecture is the subject of ongoing examination, and further studies will elucidate the spatial development of the fishing industry in Southeast Asia as well as their socioeconomic mechanisms.