This study examines the geographical diffusion of the household industry in Iran on the basis of national censuses of 1956, 1966 and 1976. I hope to identify first, in a rough way, a beginning of disappearance of regional variety of household industry. And finally I sketch out the process of homogeneization of household industry by the Persian carpet production. According to the difference of physical environment and condition of agricultural production, there has been very regional difference of these industries in Iran. There has been two worlds of household industries which on one hand spinning and weaving industry has flourished in the eastern region of Iran, on the other hand carpet industry had flourished in the western. So we can distinguish these regionalities in the 1956 census. However, in the 1966 these remarkable features were undermined very much because without carpet industry household industries (in especial weaving industry) experienced dramatically decline. While regional specialization also had disappeared throughout Iran, new space of household industry by carpet production had appeared till the 1976. Carpet production closely has been linked with markets of developed countries. The growth of new household industry and the monoculturalization by carpet industry clearly implied the fact that through carpet production every household were directly linked with global demand.
Automobile observations of air temperature distribution were conducted in order to investigate nocturnal distribution of temperature and its causal factors in Tosa City, Kochi Prefecture. The results obtained in this study are as follows : (1) From October to July, an island-shaped high temperature region was formed along the National Road N0. 56, which runs through the central part of the city area from east to west. 0n the other hand, the paddy field zone around the city area had a lower temperature than the city area. (2) The difference of temperature of the central part of the city area and a suburban part was 3.5℃ at the maximum. This value is about 0.5℃ lower than that observed in Kochi City and in Nankoku City. (3) As a result of multiple regression analysis, buildings, fields, and the distance from the National Road N0.56 are found to be major factors for temperature distribution during the nonirrigating term of the paddy fields. 0n the other hand, buildings, paved roads, parking lots, and the distance from the National Road No.56 affect temperature distribution during the irrigation term of the paddy fields. As this reason, it is suspected that the radiative cooling of night causes the temperature fall of suburban areas greatly during the non-irrigating term of the paddy fields, though its influence is small during the irrigation term of the paddy fields. And during the irrigation term of the paddy fields, it is possible that the discharge of heat from concrete or asphalt makes the city region hotter than the suburban areas.
This paper consisted of two parts. In the first part, I overviewed some studies of histories of geography. These studies paid attentions to the linguistic figurations (trope, rhetoric and metaphor) of academic descriptions, and pointed out that the forms of the past geographical works deeply intertwined the contents as the academic insistences and that behind the adoption of the specific form, the particular ideological implication did existed. The aim of this paper was to apply these arguments to the popular geographic descriptions outside academy. Though these studies focused the texualities of historical works. I centered the smaller tropes as level of one sentence. This was caused by my interest what kind of role place name as a noun plays in a sentence grammatically, and by critical comments toward the arguments about tropes. These critical comments were that the explanations about metaphor were inevitably metaphorical, and that the ideas which metaphor is needed to express a new insight assumes the meaning of a word. The second part of this paper is an analysis of the popular geographical descriptions. The object of this study is the dty guide, Tokyo Sightseeing published by Japanese publisher, Magazine House Inc. in 2002. It has characteristics of magazine and tourist guide. This text which described Tokyo as a city in English and Japanese and supposed readers of foreigners in Japan was constituted from the lot of sentences. These sentences were that the names which ranged from proper to general referred the various geographical objects from state to city and to facilities. The word of place as a general name was used as a spot to do something concrete. Place names as proper name (Odaiba, Shibuya, Roppongi) were used the destination of public transportation and the area where the reader walks around. In these description of specific behavior, Tokyo as a word of city was not appeared. 0n the other hand, at the moment that the shocks the foreign tourist encountered transformed into the recognition of cultural differences, national cultures were appeared. As a notion of national culture has a different abstract level from cartographic recognition, it was used against the idea that the name of smaller geographical scale appears easily in the sentence which expresses our familiar behavior. Between place and national culture, the word, Tokyo situated a position of the title of this text as a proper name which is able to displace the word of city as a general name, and became a Mater-Signifier.