The present geographical education in the upper secondary school contains more or less problems. Because of the popularity of the upper secondary school the geographical education in it has became more important. In this thesis the following items are to be touched upon-there exist many other problems to be referred to. 1. The History of Geography 2. The Lesson in mapping 3. The Natural Environments 4. The Climatic Division 5. States and States Groups 6. Some other items In each item the follwing is to be mentioned in details. No. 1 and No. 5 are new sphere in the geographical education and so new lines or courses of action should be established in the course of teaching. In No. 2 and No. 4 are treated how the complexity of contents should be simplified to the utmost. In No. 3 is also treated where the limit is of the teaching material. In No. 6 propose how to fill up the gap which lies between the contents of the textbook and increasing knowledge caused by social changes and progress of investigation. Finally the auther comes to the fallowing coclusion; by teaching them geography in the first and second year year grade successively instead of in the first year grade only, their ability of observation and thinking and their knowledge could be cultivated and developed.
Divertion of arable land has reucetly been serious as a result of rapid economic grouth. Two types of divertion are aparevt: transformation to housing land and revesion to bush land. The fonTler is outstanding in adiacent area to developing cities and this is a result o f the rapid development of urbanization. The latter is aparent in agriculcurally marginal land and a result of depopulation. Selectecl studies for the theme were made in the following: l) The coastal area around the Hiroshhna Bay (by S. Takashige) 2) The adjaecnt area to Hakata City, Northerm Kyushu (by H. Kawamura) 3) Five cities east of Osaka City (by K. Tanaka) Divertirn of rural areas of three Selectecl Areas is summerizecl as foliows: l. both types of divertions are outstanding tranformation to housing area took place in the land of population density of about 700 pcrsons per square kilometer and reverlion to forest did in the land of population density below100 persons per squre kilometer. 2. divertion was outstanding in the periods of 1958 and 1960 or 1961. This is particularly so in the case of divertion to housing area. 3. An annual ratio of there diverted area to housing area per tolal arable lands was as high as 7〜8 percent. 4. The above divertion of high degree was larger outside of achTlinistrative city area than within it: in the Hirostivea Bay area. its figure of Fuchu-cho (6.7%).Koyo-cho (4. 6%), Gion-cho (4. 2%), Funakoshi-cho (4. 0%), all of them exceed har mother city. HiroshhTla City (3.0%); in the northern Kyushu and in the five cities of Osaka-fu. it also show the similar pattern.
The Abu river with 83km in length and 593km^2 in drainage area has its drainage in the northwestern part of Yamaguchi prefecture and pours into the Ses of Japan in the City of Hagi. It is generally believed that volcanic activies and resultant changes of river system occurred in the upper part of this river. Except for M. Oga's study there is no detailed geomorphological study based on field survey of the process of these changes The authors conducted investigation of remnant geomorphic surfaces (mainly their altitudes and surface conditions) and their deposits, in order to understand the geomorphological history of this area. The process of changes of this river system may be sumarized as follows: 1) The upper branches upwards than the Deaibuchi depths of the Abu river was the upper ones of the Tsuwano river and flewn towards north-east. The upper streams upwards than Yokoyama of the Saba river jointed the Tsuwano river at Yoro. On the other hand, the Ikumo river, one of the bra nches of the Abu river, belonged to the drainage of the Abu river before. These phenomena are deduced by the altitude of the surface of basement complex. 2) Eruptions of the Miharayama lava dome group took place just on the river course of the Tsuwano. 3) There emerged former lake Tokusa dammed by the above volcanic bodies. The altitude of the lake level was about 320m. in height and the lake extended its area as far as the upper parts of the rivers Shinome and Saba. However, the basin of the Ikumo river was not covered with the lake. These occurences are deduced from the distribution of the lacustrine terraces and the above-mentioneed deposits. Emergence of the former lake is urgued by E.Takahashi to be dated in the lacustrine deposits. However, geomorphological evidences to fully support his thesis has not yet obtained by the present writers. 4) The lake water began to drain from the Deaibuchi depths of the Chomon gorge and river courses were converted from the former direction to present-day ones. On the other hand near Tokusa town-ship, there remained a small dammed-lake. by meanes of deltaic doposits of the branch 5) Following the subsidence, the lacustrine terraces were dissected or covered with talus deposits and the branches made fans on and/or blow the lacustrine terrace. In the basin of the Matsumoto river, the river meandered and formed terraces at several levels. At early tme of the subsiding the Saba river captiured.
The purpose of this paper is to understand what tangle (konbu) and salmon fishing village is like in comparison with that of sardine fishing village from the view point of economic activities. In this village, there are two types of fishing. One is a traditional. small scale fishing operated by family workers and the other is a capitalistic. large scale fishining. Details of the fishing establishments of Habomai is shown in the following: catch ratio [figure] Traditional tangle gathering with rude implements has still survived and play a considable important part in this village while capitalistic fishing industry has remarkably developed. It is due to the time lag of operations. comunal customs against capitalistic invasion and advantage of employing cheap labours from the Honshu. Majority of villagers are still employed by tangle gathering operation. This is contrasted with the tendency of advanced sardine-net region where the traditional fishing of small scall has been decreased and the self-employed persons have employed by newly developed. capitalistic fishing operations of Large scale. * include 39 salmon crafts which operate catching other fishes as a side operation. * Include 211 tangle crafts which operat catching fishes as a side operation.