GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 60 , Issue 4
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages Toc1-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages Toc2-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Shin KAJITA
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 237-259
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    The aim of this paper is to clarify characteristics of the labor-management relations in civil engineering industry of remote rural areas focusing on the impacts of strong social solidarity/regulation, specific to Japanese rural society. This study will focus on managers' and employees' activities because both usually belong to the same rural society. In this paper we will examine how the civil engineering industry is situated within a local society of a remote rural area, through a case study of the A village. All four civil engineering companies in the A village were established just after the end of World War II and started with only a few employees, organized from neighboring settlements via blood and communal relatives. Till the early 1960s, these companies were quite small and were very labor-intensive due to the limited volume of public work and its fluctuation. After the late 1960s, public works in the A village grew rapidly and public institutes increased the unit cost for public work. Under these changes, civil engineering companies in the A village developed quickly. The number of employees increased rapidly, and they progressed in regard to mechanization. During the same period, labor-saved, mechanized agriculture permeated this village and farmers came to engage in civil engineering jobs on a full-time basis. Then, branch plant development in the A village diversified farmers' side jobs in the 1970s and early 1980s. During the early and mid 1980s, the public institutes restrained public investment expenditure and two civil engineering companies in the A village went bankrupt and pulled out of the area. In those days, most of the persons concerned thought that the downsizing of the public work market would continue and that restructuring of the civil engineering industry was unavoidable. Therefore, the rest of the civil engineering companies in the A village agreed on a coordination rule for public work tendering to enable mutual coexistence. With the formation of this rule, each civil engineering company developed evenly during the late 1980s and early 1990s of the public work market revival. The labor-management relations in the civil engineering companies clearly reflect strong social solidarity/regulations. In the case of demand fluctuation and institutional reforms, the employers tried to maintain job creation for their employees and the employees made efforts to avoid taking opportunistic activities because such activities are socially penalized as a 'loss of trust in the community'. Mutual trusts between employers and employees avoided any opportunistic activities and this in turn made their labor-management relations harmonious. Local public institutes also supervised the civil engineering companies' activities with their strong discretions for nomination in public work tendering. Therefore, it is inadequate to criticize jobs created by public works in remote rural areas only in terms of a low daily wage and irregularity, and we should evaluate with due consideration of how employers use them.
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  • Toshiharu TSUCHITANI
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 260-280
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    In the present day, due to the popularity of private automobile use and the accompanying changes in urban structures, many cities have concerns regarding the deterioration of inner city areas. Along with the desire for invigorating measures for these areas, interest in environmental problems and barrier free measures is also increasing. Consequently, public transport systems, beginning with streetcars, are being re-evaluated throughout the country. When considering the review process of public transport systems, not only infrastructure and systems, but also how the public transport system is actually utilized, the importance of each system in relation to the overall urban transport infrastructure and the problems inherent in each system must also be taken into account. To this end, using Kumamoto Tramway as the case study subject, the author has undertaken to clarify transport patterns and the importance of the tramway to urban transport, while investigating wayside residents' utilization status and rating of Kumamoto Tramway. The main transport flow of passengers using the Kumamoto Tramway is between the city center and three districts. In addition to this flow, attention is given to the presence of commuters and students traveling to the east of the city, and passengers transferring to and from JR lines. In particular, measures facilitating the smooth transfer of passengers between lines are desirable. In the city center and surrounding areas, the relationship between Kumamoto Tramway and bus companies, and the relationship between the various bus companies themselves, are competitive. In order to conduct a review of public transport systems, collaboration between all transport systems is necessary. Above all, the development of the tramway as a medium-volume transport system and the establishment of transfer systems between tramway and buses, and "Park and Ride" systems is desirable. In the Kengun-machi district, especially in the rush hour, many passengers transfer from bus and other transport systems to the tramway, and there is demand for the tramway route to be extended further to the east. When official discussions regarding the tramway do take place, the first item on the agenda should planning for this extension. The results of the questionnaire survey show that utilization frequency of Kumamoto Tramway is high, centering on shopping and entertainment related travel, and it is clear that the wayside residents rate the tramway highly. However, further detailed analysis uncovered regional differences in utilization frequency and rating. In particular, passengers needing to transfer en-route expressed significant dissatisfaction in relation to the fare system. This indicates that collaboration is necessary not only from the perspective of facilities but also for a transfer fare system, and the further implementation of a common fare system is desirable. In order to maintain and utilize these public transport systems for city transport, the restructuring of the entire system is necessary. For example, the establishment of regional transport authorities (Verkehrsverbund) and the introduction of eco-season tickets (Umwelt Karte), such as those widely implemented in Germany, is desirable.
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  • Toshihisa ASANO, Carolin FUNCK, Jyoji SAITO, Yuya SATO
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 281-301
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    This paper takes up hotel location in Higashihiroshima City, a local urban center that has been growing rapidly, and analyses whether this city has sufficient urban functions according to its rank and growth. It also considers the possibilities for further hotel location and the influence this would have on the area. For this research, two aspects were examined : the situation of the supply side, hotels and other institutions that provide similar services within Higashihiroshima City, and of the demand side, companies and universities that create demand for hotels. To this purpose, mainly three types of key-person interviews and four types of questionnaires were conducted (Table 1). The results can be summarized in three points. First, within the city there exists a common perception that hotel supply is insufficient, and that something should be done to solve that problem. Second, there are currently about 600 hotel rooms available, but hotels are scattered around the city and are not sufficiently providing information through the Internet or other media, so the accommodation market doesn't appear to be very competitive. Third, the demand situation can be characterized by three factors. Demand culminates more or less regularly a few times a year during university entrance exams, academic conferences or city events (Fig. 8-A). During these periods, demand by far outstretches supply. A more long-term demand pattern arises from the fact that Higashihiroshima City is an industrial city. When any of the factories renew or improve their factory lines, personal from other regions will stay for a few months (Fig. 8-B) and accommodation capacities will be used to their limit; however, such a renewal takes place only once in a few years. As a third factor, it is possible that visitors who come to Higashihiroshima City for work or to visit friends and relatives will use the city as a base for tourism to Hiroshima City or Miyajima, but as public transport within the area is very inconvenient, this might not lead to an increase in demand for hotels within the city. Although the administration and the chamber of commerce have high expectations for the location of a city hotel that provides not only accommodation but also space for events and other services, an analysis of demand pattern showed that a simple business hotel would better match the needs of the market. However, highly unstable demand has so far been the major handicap for the location of a new hotel in the city. When actively promoting hotel location in Higashihiroshima City, it is also necessary to consider the sharing of urban functions with Hiroshima City, the higher ranking urban center.
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  • Hiroshi MORIKAWA
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 302-313
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 314-316
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 317-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 319-320
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 321-322
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages App2-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages App3-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    Download PDF (47K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages App4-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    Download PDF (47K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages App5-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    Download PDF (47K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages App6-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    Download PDF (47K)
  • Type: Cover
    2005 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: October 28, 2005
    Released: April 15, 2017
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