After 1990s, globalization and relaxation of regulations in labor market have changed working conditions in Japan. The revision to the Law for dispatch workers and the Law for Equal Employment Opportunity of Men and Women had increase part-time or non-permanent workers. Especially, female work turned to cheep part-time jobs or unstable dispatched jobs. Furthermore, many female workers must be imposed long working hours in order to make enough money to survive. In this ways, the ratio of female workers is increasing in Japan. This means that feminization in labor market has progressed in Japan. The trend toward service economy need more cheep female part-time workers in service sector. Married women are convenient as flexible workforce for employers or business owners. Many married women have started working in service sector according to proceeding service economy. However it places a burden on married women, because they must spend much time on working and also housework and nursing their children. This study tries to analyze the work and life of women's care workers in order to clarify the feminization of personal service sector. Care service is the most feminized sector in labor market in step with the aging of the population. Most of labor force is women's part-time worker. That is why this service needs the experience of nursing work and flexible work. Especially, elderly care services depend above all on married women. And employers in care service want to save the cost by hiring part-timers. Usually care service is assembled with short segments of part-timers works. In rural regions, aging of population is serious problems and the demand of elderly care service is increasing. However, their work is extremely flexible. Home visiting nursing service and personal care service in facility need specific service time pattern, for example helping with eating. In another case, care service women work in two specific days per week. And in another case, care service women work in two or three hours in everyday. Though, this flexibility is adequate for married women. They must perform house-work and their children's care. They don't want to get full-time job, because they think it is difficult to satisfy both of work and housework. However there is little assistance by their husband. In rural regions, married women tend to depend homework and childcare on their parents, because there are many three-generation families.
This study examines the structure and factors of animation industrial agglomeration in China's Shanghai region, with comparison to the author's prior reported studies. The Chinese animation industry has been growing rapidly, especially in the past few years. However, the industry mostly comprises subcontractors of firms from Japan, the U.S., and Europe. The Chinese government has implemented regulations and subsidies to develop the Chinese market and the industry. The animation industry in China is particularly concentrated in the Shanghai region. The production firms are characterized by their use of labor-intensive processes and their transactional relations with overseas firms. Because of these characteristics, they demand ready access to enormous labor markets and an international airport. The small firms spun off from the parent firm can ensure good transactional relations with parent firms and old colleague firms. In such relationships, mutual trust is necessary to avoid risks of contract delinquency. Firms targeting the domestic market emphasize their proximity to related content industries-their major clients. The laborers' income is unstable and working conditions are severe. Workers acquire skills from co-workers. Most can maintain their jobs through proximity with firms and close relationships with other workers. Because of these factors, the industry in the Shanghai region includes a reproduction system and provides a technical labor force flexibly to firms. Compared with the author's study of the agglomeration structure in Tokyo or Seoul animation industries, this study of the Shanghai region animation industry reveals that the proximity to the international airport is important-especially for firms with international transactions-as are the factors leading to agglomeration in the animation industry. Moreover, the workers' network reproduces the technical labor force and mutually complementary relationships among firms to satisfy labor needs flexibly and instantaneously. The proximity to the related contents industry is another major factor of the agglomeration. The influence by governmental treatment is an important regional factor. The government cuts taxes of animation firms and tolerates late night work. This factor is a specific regional quality of the Shanghai animation industry.