The purpose of this paper is to examine people's views on "panpans" (prostitutes), pimps, and the American soldiers who frequented the amusement street neighboring the Nara Rest and Recuperation Center, which was established on May 1, 1952, for American soldiers returning from the Korean War. The paper also presents the negative effects of the panpans, pimps, and soldiers on the local residents and Nara, an ancient city and a tourist destination, and clarifies how the local residents, Nara city, Nara Prefecture, and the Japanese government handled these effects. The amusement street appeared as soon as the Nara Rest and Recuperation Center was set up in the former town of Yokoryou-chou in Nara city. Two main local newspapers reported that some groups of pimps and their panpans tempted American soldiers in the amusement street, and then the local residents thought pimps and panpans were immoral. It can be said that the amusement street was a place where panpans sold themselves to American soldiers. The local residents became anxious about the amusement street, because in addition to causing educational problems for their children, it spoiled the image of Nara as an age-old and a tourist city. The local residents blamed the Nara Rest and Recuperation Center for the presence of the amusement street and demanded the relocation/abolition of the center. It is interesting to note that the Nara UNESCO cooperation meeting assumed a leading role in the demand for the relocation/abolition of the Nara Rest and Recuperation Center, citing the effect of the amusement street, with its panpans and pimps, on the children's education as the main reason. The cooperation meeting was originally a civic organization that strived to preserve and protect the culture and natural heritage of Nara, and so it emphasized the necessity of protecting the old culture of Nara. It demanded that the center not be relocated but abolished. It can be said that some of the activities in the demand for the relocation/abolition of the Nara Rest and Recuperation Center were done in the different context, protecting the old culture, from the practices at Yokohama and Kokura. From a viewpoint of gender, it should be pointed out that the problem which panpans could not but sell themselves to American soldiers was not discussed in the activities that demanded for the relocation/abolition of the Nara Rest and Recuperation Center. The local residents of the amusement street as well as its managers, panpans, and pimps were deceived when the Japanese government and U.S. Forces authorities suddenly changed their manner of dealing with the center. Soon after the official announcement that the Rest and Recuperation Center was moved from Yokoryou-chou in Nara to the city of Kobe, it was decided that the U.S. Armed Forces Marine Corps be stationed in Nara city for a while. The marines in Nara actually went to private houses and hospitals at midnight and asked for women. This suggests that so long as an army exists, the problems of gender over violence and sex, which military affairs contained, cannot be solved.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the recent changes in the geographical conditions of the Japanese machinery and instrument industry in Dalian, China. We mainly focused on 1. the wage levels and recruitment of workers and other human resources and 2. the role of local government. The business environment of Japanese Multinational Enterprises (JMEs) has changed since 2006. Rising wage levels and prices have especially had a negative influence on them. Consequently, a large number of workers have left their jobs after only working for short periods, which has reduced the productivity of companies. However, according to a survey where employers were interviewed, specialized personnel, including office workers and managers, tended to continue in their positions. Many companies valued the education of their Chinese employees and as a result only about 0.4% of all employees were Japanese at 26 companies. Most JMEs in Dalian were generally satisfied with their employee's in-company education. JMEs were also satisfied with actions taken by the local government in Dalian and few companies had problems with them. The Dalian city government has held periodic meetings with JMEs to deal with their problems since the 1990s. These meetings are held 3 times a year and the city government may take various actions against requests. In addition to these periodical meetings, JMEs have been able to make requests to the local government and ask city government officials to explain the content of any laws that have been unclear. Because the Dalian economy relies heavily on JMEs, the local government has been trying to be flexible with requests from JMEs. Political and social problems have been severe for JMEs. Most JMEs that invested in Dalian took advantage of the preferred tax policies offered by the central government. However, most of these are no longer offered today. In addition, there have been restrictions with electricity use because it is in short supply. These restrictions were imposed on factories throughout China in the summer in 2006 and have caused serious problems, especially in Dalian. According to a survey where companies were interviewed, although some political and social factors encouraged various large companies to set up factories to produce the same goods in Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam, most of these have remained in Dalian. This is because there have been more advantages than disadvantages in investing in Dalian. Some companies have especially thought that their employees in Dalian were so well-trained that it would be a huge loss if they had to move to a new location and educate new employees from the beginning again. In addition, wage levels have been rising even in Vietnam and strikes have frequently broken out. It would be much harder to employ as many trained workers in Vietnam as in China.