GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 65 , Issue 1
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App2-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App3-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages Toc1-
    Published: January 28, 2010
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  • Type: Index
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages Toc2-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Hiroshi MORIKAWA
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 1-25
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    A comparative regional geography focussing on selective, problem-oriented issues (Scholler, 1978a) is valuable both for studying regional geography and regional planning. This paper deals with the population increase and its supporting factors in small and medium-sized cities and rural areas in Germany, a process which is very stimulating for the situation in Japan and arouses the curiosity of Japanese scholars. Accordingly, the author focuses on two questions: What are the reasons for this challenging phenomenon? Can the German example be regarded as a model for improving the current situation of small and medium-sized cities and underpopulated rural areas in Japan? Small and medium-sized cities and rural municipalities of the old federal states of Germany showed an increase of populations from 1995 to 2005 (Table 1). In this period, however, large cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in the old federal states and nearly all municipalities in the new federal states showed a population decrease. For analysing this result, the author selected the following eight factors mainly based on Nationalatlas Bundesrepublik Deutschland and Raumordnungsberichte 2000 and 2005 which are closely connected with the population increase: federalism and urban systems, regional planning, head office locations of the 500 biggest enterprises, population migration, location problems of supermarkets and shopping centers, economic regional disparities and the regional infrastructure related to educational, cultural and medical facilities. Generally, living conditions in urban areas such as income level, job and schooling opportunities etc. are regarded to be more favorable than those in rural areas except for suburban areas. However, many inhabitants in rural areas show close emotional feelings for to their rural environment. Therefore, it is questionable if desurbanisation will continue in the future. Moreover, living conditions in the new federal states do not yet match with those of the old federal states despite a lot of money which has been spent by the old federal states for the Aufbau Ost since the reunification in 1990. The main factors supporting desurbanisation in German are seen in the urban system of Germany based on being decentralised structure as well as in its regional planning policy (Raumordnungspolitik). Certainly, these phenomena cannot directly adopted into the regional policy of Japan and hence cannot simply expected as causing excellent effects in Japan. However, Japan should try to learn from the German experience e.g by adopting a regional planning policy which focusses on instituting central places of some orders, improving traffic conditions, location control of supermarkets, and proper locations of school and medical services in order to counterbalance regional disparities in Japan.
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  • Susumu NAKATSUJI
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 26-49
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    In rural areas of Laos, migrations of the highland populations to the plains and the valleys have become very significant. Although these migrations seem to occur out of the free will of highland populations, they are in fact promoted by the rural development policy of the government of the Lao PDR. This policy is named the 'Focal Site' strategy. The government has designated Focal Sites in every district as growth centers of rural areas and implemented integrated rural development programs there. Focal Sites are often chosen along major streams or at the periphery of plains. Inhabitants of highland villages around the sites are persuaded to relocate to the sites to gain easier access to development activities. This paper evaluates the rural development policy behind these migrations by comparing the livelihood of a highland village with that of a lowland village. The research sites are two villages in Xiangngeun District, that is, Huaykhang Village, a lowland village along a main road, and Huaypheng Village, a highland village at a distance of two hours' walk from Huaykhang Village. Both villages are mainly inhabited by Khamu people, and more than half of the population of Huaykhang Village consists of migrants from Huaypheng Village. Our conclusions are as follows. In Huaypheng Village, shifting cultivation is sustainable both in economic and ecological terms. Due to a low population density, the duration of fallow is relatively long, and there is almost no practice of growing rice on the same ground in consecutive years. In addition, the weather and soil condition of the highland is favorable to the cultivation of upland rice and other cultigens. Villagers still cultivate large areas of upland rice fields, and so they have a rice deficiency of only two months on average (2004-2006). They also engage in some market-oriented activities, of which animal husbandry is the most important. The highland environment is suitable for animal husbandry in terms of feed and disease. In contrast, in Huaykhang Village, shifting cultivation has been unsustainable. Due to increased population pressure in recent years, the duration of fallow time has been shortened, and it has become common practice in this village to grow rice on the same ground over two or more years. Due to weed infestation during the cultivation period, villagers have decreased the area of upland rice fields. Therefore, most of the Khamu households, including migrants from Huaypheng Village, experience four to seven months of rice deficiency, during which they have to buy rice with money earned by market-oriented activities. These activities, however, do not always bring higher income to migrants than before when they were in Huaypheng. In 2005, their average annual income was lower than that of the inhabitants of Huaypheng Village. Falling short of both rice and money, most migrants have increased their economic dependence on Tai lowlanders, who are the dominant population in the lowland, by buying or borrowing rice from them and engaging in wage labor for them. This study shows that migrations of highland populations to the lowland do not make them better off but indeed impoverish them. These migrations are promoted by a policy that aims to concentrate development projects in the lowland and to prohibit the use of highland forest. Many households in the research site, however, make their living by utilizing both the highland and the lowland. For them, the highland is an area for traditional livelihood activities such as shifting cultivation, animal husbandry, foraging and so on. On the contrary, the lowland is an area for modern life that has infrastructures and public facilities such as roads, electricity supply, schools, medical facilities, markets, etc. Their livelihood strategy is to take full advantage of both areas. Therefore, if the government really wishes to improve the life of the rural

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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 50-51
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 51-54
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 54-56
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 57-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 58-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App4-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App5-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App6-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App7-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App8-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App9-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App10-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages App11-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2010 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 28, 2010
    Released: April 14, 2017
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