GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 67 , Issue 2
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages Cover1-
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages App1-
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages Toc1-
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages Toc2-
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Yasuhisa ABE
    Type: Article
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 51-69
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Since the late 1990s, ICT and many service businesses in Japan have moved to newly emerging nations where costs are lower due to the development of communication technologies and improved infrastructures. The purpose of this research is to clarify the meaning of the customer service center (CC) set up in Dalian city for Japan and how those companies have adapted themselves to the change of locational environment. The author chose Dalian city in China, known as the most popular city for Japanese companies to move to, as the research area. As a result, since Software Park was built and infrastructures were improved in 1998, it was found out that CCs for Japan have been built in Dalian city, especially between 2000 and 2005. A little before this time, many CCs were also begging to be built in provincial cities in Japan. CC service is for end-users, and it requires employees have 1. native-level Japanese skills, 2. high customer service skills, and 3. high knowledge of the company's products. Therefore, in fact, only a few companies have moved to Dalian. Most of these companies were global companies whose headquarters were located in U.S.A. or China. There were a limited number of Japanese companies, which were B.P.O. (business process outsourcing) venders. In addition, since 2006 prices and labor costs have risen in China and companies are facing difficulty in acquiring operators who are skilled enough to meet their requirements. It is said that only 20-30% of those Chinese who have studied at a Japanese university, are capable of working as CC operators. Therefore, some companies relocated their CCs or set up other CCs in provincial cities in Japan. However, most of these companies kept their offices in Dalian for other purposes. They shifted their offshoring works from CC services, which require high Japanese skills, to back office services for Japanese markets such as data entry and commissioned software development. Some companies changed their CCs for Japan into CCs or management offices for China. Offshoring work has become more and more common in recent years. It can be said that relocation of CCs from Dalian to provincial cities in Japan is due to not only rising prices and wage levels in Dalian but also cultural factors such as requirement for high Japanese skills and Japanese-style customer services. What we call "Glocalization" where globalization and localization move forward at the same time is in progress among offshore businesses in Dalian.
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  • Tomoya HANIBUCHI, Tomoki NAKAYA, Kazumasa HANAOKA, Akio MURANAKA
    Type: Article
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 71-84
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    This paper is aimed at examining the association between the degree of urbanization/suburbanization and the levels of social capital in quantitative terms. We performed a multilevel analysis for the data from JGSS (Japanese General Social Surveys) conducted in 2000-2003. The results showed that the respondents who resided in rural municipalities (i.e., the least urbanized areas) were more likely to belong to groups, for both vertical and horizontal types of organizations, compared to those who lived in the center of large metropolitan areas. However, no differences were seen between urban centers and suburbs within these metropolitan areas studied. In addition, the indicators of general trust and attachment to place did not exhibit significant associations with the index of urbanization! suburbanization. On the contrary, many individual attributes were related to social capital indices; suggesting that the individual/compositional factors may determine the levels of social capital more clearly than the regional/contextual factors. Since our study used the indicators of "global social capital", which do not refer to geographical aspects of social networks or trust, analyzing "local social capital" is necessary in future studies.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 85-88
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 89-91
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages App2-
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (74K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages App3-
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (57K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages App4-
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (57K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages App5-
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    Download PDF (57K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages App6-
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
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    Download PDF (57K)
  • Type: Cover
    2012 Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: July 28, 2012
    Released: April 14, 2017
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