In this study, I examined the soundscape perceived by local residents in Nagamachi district, Kanazawa City, Japan. I performed a quantitative analysis by measuring sound pressure levels, and audible spatial range of river canal sound. In areas close to the barges, I identified loud sounds that exceeded the regulations set by the Ministry of the Environment. In addition, I found the following: (1) the extent of the sound transmission depended on the shape of the listeners' area such as streets and structures, and (2) it changed seasonally as the water flow fluctuated. I also conducted a survey with questionnaires and group interviews to clarify the local residents' consciousness and evaluation of keynote sounds in their daily lives. Local residents were not conscious of the water flow sound from the river canals, but they subliminally evaluated the sound as a context of their daily lives. This suggests that the water flow sound is a keynote sound perceived by local residents.
Japan's small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in machinery manufacturing have actively engaged in innovation in recent years. This study aims to clarify the existence foundation of innovation activities and spatial behavior of machinery SMEs in Japan's Kumamoto prefecture.
Based on technical characteristics and development processes, the case companies were classified into three categories: (a) fundamental technology, (b) parts assembly, and (c) production of manufacturing equipment. Technology orientation of innovation was stipulated in the technical characteristics accumulated by each company.
Focusing on the development process of new products or new technologies of the case companies, two factors, namely support from large companies and existence of dense networks of industry-university-government collaboration, were the regional foundation for innovation creation. Networks for innovation were built around a narrow spatial scale within the Kumamoto prefecture.
Industrial associations and support agencies, such as public research institutes and universities, are clustered in the Kumamoto metropolitan area. Since SMEs located away from the area found it difficult to access support for innovation activities, they have established branch offices and laboratories in the Kumamoto metropolitan area. As a result, innovative activities of SMEs have intensified spatial concentration in the Kumamoto metropolitan area.