This paper aims to explain the system of preserving traditional techniques used in Kutani pottery production. Kutani pottery has many values, including being used as functional daily commodities and as fine art, even those with the common feature called "Gosai," the elaborate designs using five traditional colors: red, yellow, green, purple, and deep blue. For this paper, I analyze the process of learning the common techniques, with special focus on an individual craftsman's formal (school) and practical (apprenticeship) learning. This paper discusses the educational and apprenticeship processes, as well as the conditions for external studies through an institute of education. Further, operation types are classified by tracing the process of individual learning and independent workers' careers as craftsmen or artists. What role each educational institution, artist studio, and company plays in the acquisition of skills by the student is clarified for further consideration.
Three methods have been identified for learning Kutani pottery skills. First, students graduate from Kanazawa University of Art and Design, and they independence after working as apprentices in their parents' households. Second, after studying traditional skills at a public educational institution, they work as apprentices for a large-scale pottery manufacturer or directly with an artist, after which they eventually become independent pottery makers using public supports available for the promotional support of Kutani pottery. The third type includes those who did not work as apprentices or became independent in a short period of time. When Kutani pottery production is practiced at home, production techniques are learned there. Conversely, when Kutani pottery is not produced at home, they learn the techniques at public institutions using subsidies from a local government. Educational institutions have provided external study opportunities for learning the various skills according to the student's proficiency; thus, the traditional techniques of Kutani pottery production have been passed on.
The aim of this paper was to analyze the details of the ecological method and its further development related to the geography of fisheries in Japan. The ecological method is a research method that can reveal the relationship between fishery activities in the water and the natural environment, tidal movements and currents, wind force and direction, the physical structure and shape of the seabed, etc. This method was introduced by geographer Tawa Masataka who was affected by ecological anthropology and cultural geographical studies of fisheries geography in the 1980's. The features of this method are to emphasize firsthand data obtained by measuring the time fishermen leave and return to port, the duration of fishing activities at sea, the number of vessels, the amount of fishing gear, and the weight and length of the fish. It was clear that temporal patterns of fishing ground use could be described through this method. Since the 1990's, the ecological method has been applied to several case studies and some new research methods have been developed. On the other hand, chronological research of the pattern of environmental use by fishermen have become generalized in ecological anthropological studies of fisheries. Considering these study trends and the current circumstances surrounding fisheries, it is important to locate temporal data obtained by the ecological method to examine the social, economic, natural dynamics surrounding fisheries.