This paper attempts to examine the daily-transportations of elderly women (over 75years old) in Kamikatsu-town, Tokushima prefecture, focusing on how the difference of their transportation condition, such as the locations of their residence and the transportation they use, has impacted on the combination of their means of transportation.
Amid the decrease of the mobility of the elderly women and the range of their activities, this combination can be divided into several patterns depending on the difference of the transportation condition of their residence. Those who live in the area near from a bus stop benefit from inexpensive bus service, which facilitates the support from their family members who live apart. On the other hand, those who live in the area distant from a bus stop need other means of transportation including DRT (Demand Responsive Transportation) to sustain such support.
In this manner, the utility form of the transportation differs depending on the distance between a residence and the nearest bus stop. In the case of Kamikatsu Town, however, irrespective of this distance, the mobility of the elderly women has presented some insufficiency: the above-mentioned support from the non-resident family of those who live nearer from a bus stop tends to be intermissive because of the inconvenience of their family. Those who live in the area distant from a bus stop suffer more directly from the lack of transportation services. This lack of service, namely "the insufficiency of accessible transportation," is a new problem caused by the aging of the residents. During the high economic growth period, when the popularization of automobiles and motorcycles enabled women to move around easily by themselves or with the help of others, this problem did not come to the surface. In this respect, from now, it seems necessary to establish the transportation services that enhance the safety and quality of the elderly's mobility and provide them with more occasions to go out.
We reviewed geographical studies on the relationship between sport and regional revitalization, while referring to sports sociology and sports economics research, and identified the main issues and research topics. Sport is often used in Japan in regional revitalization projects. It has been used to reduce regional disparities by generating employment in rural areas since the 1950s. Ski resorts in snowy mountain villages, marine resorts in beach areas, and golf resorts on the outskirts of cities have been constructed. Sport has also been used to regenerate urban areas since the 1990s. Large-scale sports facilities have been built or renovated in many cities, cities now have their own professional sports teams, and mega-events such as the Olympics have been hosted.
These projects have affected the local environment, leading to growth in the economy, improvement of the regional image, promotion of local communities, and so on. However, construction of large-scale sports facilities has also destroyed natural environments and negatively affected the lives of residents.
In future research, we will not only examine sport as a regional revitalization tool but also elucidate the impact of sport from various perspectives and examine its limitations through fieldwork. We will share the results and policy implications with academia and policymakers.