Regional analysis of internal migration by age group is important for a study not only of urban systems but also of regional life pattern of inhabitants. The regional patterns of internal migration are variable between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas as well as between non-metropolitan areas each other. Following to the studies of Chugoku, Kyushu and Tohoku districts, I try to analyze regional pattern of internal migration in Hokkaido with the regional urban center Sapporo.
Hokkaido is a region of underdeveloped urban systems; urban density is so low that many municipalities without commuting come out. In addition, the urban systems is characterized by the primate city type with Sapporo to top.
Sapporo city has excess-in-migrants of all age group of youth group (15 to 29 age), manhood group (30 to 49 age), middle age group (50 to 64 age), young-old group (65 to 74 age) and latter-stage elderly (over 75 age). Within them the largest excess in-migrants in Sapporo is not youth group but latter-stage elderly; then the excess-in-migrants of latter-stage elderly play the most important role for the social increase of population in Sapporo.
By analyzing the largest excess-in or out-migrants of each municipality I have decided migration centers and their excess-migrants areas. youth group, manhood group, middle age group and latter-stage elderly show regional patterns of migration centers and their excess-migrants areas. In addition to Sapporo with the largest migrants area Obihiro, Asahikawa, Hakodate and Kushiro are migration centers with relatively large areas of excess-migration in all age groups. Although Kitami has a relatively large area it has no excess-migrants area of youth group. As excess-migrants areas are formed rather by the deference of charming grade between migration centers than the circle of Apollonius, the excess-migrants area of Sapporo spread out in the great distance, while those of Asahikawa, Hakodate et al. is shortened in distorted form.
Although rural municipalities usually have excess-in-migration in another age groups except for the largest excess-out-migrants of youth group, there are many municipalities with excess-out-migrants of all age groups in Hokkaido; they are called "a municipality of only excess-out-migrants". They follow to rapid decrease of population. Especially it is noticeable in rural areas in Hokkaido that the excess-out-migrants of latter-staged elderly is strongly developed because of difficult works of removing the snow in winter and the inconvenience of visiting the shops and hospitals for the latter-stage elderlies. Accordingly, there are many rural municipalities that their excess-out-migrants are larger than those of manhood and youth groups. In spite of long distance from their own municipalities they move likely into Sapporo where there are many shops and hospitals of better facility and then their adult children live frequently.
Hokkaido is recognized as a region of serious living conditions. In order to resolve these problems, in addition to develop industries and to increase working places it is desirable for public establishments in rural areas and small and middle-sized cities to cooperate each other in order to strengthen their functions.
This study aims to investigate the measures taken by nursing homes in Oita City, Japan, to recruit certified care workers and the employee characteristics of these workers. Of the 33 managers I approached, 8 permitted me to interview them. In addition, I administered a questionnaire to the nursing homes' certified care workers. Of the 380 people contacted, 148 respondents were valid.
As the level of care required in nursing homes is higher than that in average facilities, nursing homes are obliged to employ a large number of certified care workers, both men and women. However, research on the gender differences in the employee characteristics of certified care workers is lacking.
First, larger-scale facilities tend to report a higher proportion of certified care workers. Though the recruitment of these workers is generally conducted through government employment agencies, nursing homes also utilize several other recruitment methods, such as exploiting personal connections, reemploying retirees, and recruiting directly from training schools for certified care workers. Additionally, nursing homes employ candidates for certified care workers from entry-level training schools.
Second, most facilities offer a qualification allowance to secure certified care workers. A few facilities also provide practical learning opportunities and financial aid for exams.
Third, regular employees of certified care workers work for longer periods of times than the national average. Additionally, the employee characteristics of men differ from those of women. For example, men are more likely to work as care leaders, and the proportion of married men in leadership positions is higher than that of single men. Married men also tend to receive higher salaries than single men. On the other hand, female training school graduates select workplaces by considering multiple factors, that is, both formal and informal information.