In this paper, I explain the types of damage caused by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake to pasture lands used for beef cattle production, and how the cooperatives that use and manage such pasture lands coped with restoration. I discuss the cases of 11 cooperatives with pasture lands in the former villages of Choyo and Hakusui in Aso, Kumamoto Prefecture.
The loss of beef cattle was not as severe in comparison. The subsidies that the pasture cooperatives received from external organizations were primarily related to landslides and road damage in the pasture lands.
The subsidies of some cooperatives increased as the landslides and road damage increased. However, there were other cooperatives whose subsidies increased as damage decreased, or whose subsidies decreased as damage increased. This can be attributed to the likelihood that the cooperatives have diverse ways of maintaining and managing pasture lands.
Former pasture cooperatives did not engage in field burning before the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake due to accidents in neighboring areas. However, they intend to practice field burning if the circumstances demand so, especially since the local administration has strengthened its support for restoration.
Among the more recent pasture cooperatives, one had its own permanent firebreaks to facilitate the maintenance and management of pasture lands before the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake. In some pasture cooperatives, the size of the herd was larger than the allotted area of the pasture lands. Therefore, in some cases, field burning was thought to be unnecessary for maintaining and managing pasture lands, causing a decline in support for restoration.
This paper is an inquiry into the nature of the processes constructing places, or "place-making", taking as examples eight case studies in American cultural or social geography. The place targeted in each study is a living space or a territory for the people who live there, at the same time is a geographical sphere imparted with an image or symbolic meaning tied to their identity, ethos, or heritage. The processes through which these places have been constructed are in most cases described as landscape-making. The place-making is to create their own territory by physical and symbolic ways, as well as to create an ideal landscape under a certain cultural contexts. It is noteworthy to suggest that a cultural (re)production of a place may reproduce a society or culture. The actual forces to make a place are physical as well as symbolic acts by inside stakeholders, however external cognitive representation may play important roles in place-making. In addition, the backgrounds, contexts, or parameters surrounding the place-making may impose some characteristic traits upon each case.