The author aims at examining the deforestation in China. It is his hypothesis that the swidden cultivation is the main cause of deforestation in mountaln-1and of South China. There are many Chinese literatures reporting the existence of this type of cultivation which may be classified into the swidden cultivation. The centre of swidden cultivation moved in China, but it was not caused by the migration of the specific people whose mode of life was migratory. Chinese literatures which describing the cultivation are not detailed enough to explain the techniques and the cultivation process, because the hierographic character of Chinese letter hinders the concrete individuality of local agriculture. Especially as the writers were mande-rings or Confucian scholars who had not made an exact observation of this type of cultivation. The description of Regional Gazetter was valid in the case when the editor staff members were the natives or the lower-post local authorities who observed native life in detail. Thus the author examins a general view of the cultivation from geographical point on the ground of the data of local gazetter in Chinese. The distribution of the swidden agriculture in the 15th century in China Proper is shown in Fig. 1, in vertue of Geography of the National Unity by Ming Dynasty. This was a brief sketch of the swidden cultivation in the 15th century. The field 1,vhich was cleared to sow seed was called "yo" or "syo" and was generally abondoned after two or three years generally. Main crops in the field were hill rice, cotton, pearl barley and taro in southern parts of Nanlin. On the other hand, in the northern hills they were millet, sorghum, barley, soyabean and maize. Only buckwheat was the common with both regions. It was impossible for us to find out how the difference came out. Natural conditions such as climate or vegetation may have been of the factors and the difference of cultural folks may have been another factor. Also, economic and social stage of development must be taken into account. The noteworthy crop \vas maize which is believed to have been introduced in the last half of the 15th century. The surprisingly development of this crop in the mountainland of South China was noticed in the 19th century in many places. It will be one of interesting thema to investigate its reason. Soil erosion of the field is also an important problem in studies of swidden cultivation in China. From the geographical viewpoint, it Is worthwhile to compare this type of swidden cultivation with that in neighbouring lands, particularly with that of Japan, Korea, Jaiwan and Indo-China.
The counter-plan for the pollution has become a serious problem in the regions of the civilized world. So has it been in our country. While the public nuisance has been proceeding rapidly in process of recent remarkable economical development, the preventive regulations of the public nuisance are not promulgated as perfect rules yet. A study is made about how the problem had been solved in the city of Ube. The results of this study may be concluded in the following 1. It was in 1949 that the systematic movement for the air pollution began to rise. There were remarkable affairs that made its systematic movement active and lowered the degree of the air pollution suddenly. (1) The arousal of the public opinion to prevent the air pollution, expecting the industrial development of this region. (2) The positive administration of the city authorities. The counterplan committee was composed of the representatives of the business circles, scholars or managers of the administration, and the men in the street kept co-operating with them closely. (3) It was found practically how the situations of the air pollution did plants, animals, or human bodies harm by dint of continual scientific examinations. (4) The results of the these observations were anounced to the public. These essential elements organically combined each other to propel the counter-plan of the air pollution. 2. The main causes that have important effects upon this air pollution are the comsumption of fuel such as coal or heavy oil, where to place the dust collecting equipments, the distance between factories and the corporate towns, the weather conditions, and the topographies. (1) It is owing to more increase of the dust-collecting equipments and more decrease of the fuel, coal consumption that the amount of falling dusts decreased 40 percent of the highest one. The reason why sulphurous acid gass increases is that the consumption of heavy oil increases while the preventive equipments of diffusion of the acid gass are not established yet. (2) The industrial district lies in the south-west to the part of the corporate town. The wind most offen blows from east and more offen from West. According to this conditions, a great damage will be apt to happen when it blows from SE〜NW. And the fact that there will be a great quantity of the consumption of fuel in winter season is adding evil-conditions to the air pollution. (3) From now on, we hope to advance "Ube method" which wards off the public nuisance, and economic, social development. It is necessary for us to continue to study its nature and its social and regional character scientifically.
The jori System in the Munakata-gun of: the Chikuzen Province may be summarized as follows: (1) The jori in the Munakata-gun was enforced in the greater part of the alluvial plains on the river valleys of the Tsuri, Ima, Saigo and One. But it, restricted by the topography, varies in its scale and the direction of its land division. (2) It is hardly possible for us to reconstruct the tsubonami (arrangement and direction of the allotment of tsubo) due to lack of the place names which have relation to jori system. It is also impossible for us to make clear the jori system and its name all in Munakata-gun excepting a few parts. (3) It is, I believe, because the naming method of plots is closely connected with not only the topography, course of the river, but with the political power which was reflected in go (political unit in ancient times) that no fixed arrangement and rational tendency of the jori alottment in the Tsuri valley. were seen. (4) In Munakata-gun there were three gos:Togo, Saigo, and Nango;and these names seem to have been related to jori, but identification of place names is difficult : nearly half of 14 gos shown in Wamyosho has not yet been identified and, to make matters worse, the extent of these three gos is not clear and so it was difficult to make the relation between these names and jori clear.
Investigating the river terraces and fault morphology on the right side of the lower Yoshino, the writer has come to the following conclusions. 1. The river terraces in this area may be classified into three groups: higher (H), middle (M). and lower (L). They may be further subdivided into H1, H2, H3; M1, M2; L1, L2, L3. 2. For the correlation of terraces, a comparative survey was effectively made as to the degrees of weathering of the terrace gravels and of laterization of their matrix as zonal soils. For example, the matrix of the higher terraces has the color in 1OR to 5YR (after Munsell's Color Chart) and that of the lower terraces in 7.5 YR to 2.5 Y. It may be presmned that the above methods can be applied to the correlation of the terraces in the Sanbagawa Terrain of the outer zone of the southwestern Japan. 3. The longitudinal profile of the terraces and the main river bed suggests an upheaval of about 20-40m in the western area. It will presumably represent a crustal movement of anticlinal axis connecting the center of the Asan Mountains with the Muroto Cape. The above figures, however, are not exclusively of the upheaval, but contains partly the effect of the accumulation from the tributaries. 4. The percentage of numbers of the outcrops including the sandstones from the Asan Mountains is higher at the middle and lower terraces than at the higher terraces. This may be attributed to the fact that the Asan Mountains probably elevated during the formation of gravel beds on the middle terraces. 5. The discovery of Kamiura Fault at the right side of the Yoshino confirmed that the eastern valley floor plain of the Yoshino is a graben between the Fault and the Median Line of its left side. The western part of the valley of the Yoshino is not a graben but an erosional valley along the Median Line, or a fault line valley. 6. The greater part of the higher flat surfaces north of Mount K6tsu may be considered a dissected fan supposeed to have been built by the activity of the Fault north of Mount kotsu. 7. Both Kamiura Fault and the Fault north of Mount Kotsu show the horizontal displacement measured about 40m at Kamiura Fault, and it is similar to the displacement of the Median Line (Kaneko 1966).