GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 9
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1968 Volume 9 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1968 Volume 9 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • Masahiko OYA, Takekazu AKAGIRI
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 1-13
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • Ken'ichiro TAKENAGA
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 14-29
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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    In the central part of the Ryukyu Islands, especially at Takara I., Yoron I., and Iheya-lzena Is., the post-glacial sea level is discussed by means of considering the beaches. In the coral reef coasts, the post-glacial sea level higher than at present, may be testified by (1) the formation of red soil in the sediments, (2) terraces and beaches, (3) beach ridges and recent dunes, (4) notches and caves, (5) beach rocks, (6) the limestone filling up the fissures, (7) the reef under the negro heads and (8) the lowest knick point in the streams, etc. If these are considered in relation to C-14 dating, the period of the sea level will be clearer. In this paper terraces and benches were mainly discussed in addition to the reef under negro heads. In the central part of the Ryukyu Islands the post-glacial terraces and benches may be safely classified roughly into (1) Kikai-jima type, (2) Yoron-jima type, and (3) Izena-Yanoshita-jima type. Kikai-jima type has the characteristics of the broad terraces often more than I km in width, of the height of more than 5 - 6 m at the highest terraces, and of being unable to distinguish the benches. But, Takara-jima subtype shows less than 3 m in height, thin sand and gravel bed, and often benches at high tide level or mean tide level. Yoron-jima type has the broad reef at present sea level which is often more than 1 km in width. Former shoreline can be identified by beach rocks and notches, but there are no distinct benches higher than high tide level. Yanoshita-jima type which is the intermediate type between Kikai-jima type and Yoron-jima type, is the characterized by broad and flat benches, and former notches. In the case that the limestone is not sufficiently consolidated, the bedding-plane is weak and torn off like a storm bench. This may fittingly be called Okinoerabu-type. It is estimated by the distribution of beach rocks and double notches that the post-glacial high sea stand in Yoron-jima attained to 2 - 3 m in height. At that time the barrier reef was situated in the inner part where we can see minute pedestals at present. But it must be noticed that the surface of flat topped minute pedestals do not indicate the sea level then, because the benches have been lowered by erosion since the time of formation. 6 m-bench represented at Yoron-jima, showing incomplete distribution and shape, and overlying red soils, seems to be formed before the last glacial period. It cannot be considered also that 3 m bench was formed at the post-glacial period, because the distribution and shape of benches is very incomplete, but it has been deformed to a storm bench. The reef flat covered with the negro heads would have been relieved of the erosion. Accordingly in the most desirable case, it has reserved the initial reef surface exactly. This will Simultaneously show that the raised reef be lowered in parallel with the former surface as time goes on' Therefore the former sea level cannot be identified directly with the present geomorphological surface' The conclusion of this paper is that the post-glacial high Sea stand attained a few meter higher that at present in the central part of Ryukyu Islands.
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  • Nobuhisa SHINTAKU
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 30-40
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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    This report is to show the regional difference in the deveplopment of the *Chinese citron cultivation as commercial crops and in the decrease in the farm population under the iuflunce of capitalism economy, in the Northern area of Yamaguchi Prefecture. The results are as follows: The regions under the Chinese citron cultivation may be divided into three areas: (1) The center area under the Chinese citron cultivation (Hagi, Tsubaki, Chinto, Ooi, Sanmi, Yamada) (2) The circumference area around the center area (Nako, Misumi) (3) The out area around the circumference area (Utago, Susa, Esaki. Senzaki, Fukawa, Heki, Yuya, Utsuga, Mukatsuku, Kyowa, Oshima, Mishima) In order to give the work to samurais who lost their fixed income which was granted by the lord, the Chinese citron began to be cultivated in Hagi one hundred years ago. Before the World War I the Chinese citron cultivation spread around Hagi. The center area (1) is the most developed one under the Chinese citron cultivation. The less developed area is the out one around the circumference area (3). Decrease in the farm population in the Northern area of Yamaguchi Prefecture is in proportion to cultivation in the less developed area. Few peasants in the center area under the Chinese citron cultivation move into other industrial cities. The Chinese citron cultivation is more profitable than rice cultivation. This is an important reason why peasants in the Northern area depend on this commercial crops cultivation. But it is not satisfactory that peasants depend only on the Chinese citron cultivation. Because young peasants (especially in the lower class), farmer succesors, are continually leaving their own villages in order to earn their better living. Therefore in future, it will be desirable that other commercial crops cultivation and livestock farming (such as pig-raising, chicken-raising, cow-raising) should be introduced into this area.
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  • shuichi NAKAYAMA
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 41-48
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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    India is a country having great problems such as population growth of jet plane speed, food shortage toward the hunger of the nation and bullock cart tempo of development in manufacturing industries. Aslo India is a country which has a deep root into the long established history; consequently, people rather feels it difficult to understand fully the depth of her culture and the tragedy on her history. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the industrialisation and its influence to a traditional region of India from the view point of the structural change on the population and the regional society. To start with, three major industrial regions in Eastern India and five indexes that are listed below have been selected for the present study. 1) Rapid growth of population. 2) Superiority of workers at manufacturing factories on an occupational structure. 3) Concentration of literate and educated people. 4) Unbalance of sex ratio. 5) Growth of Naya Bazar (New Market). The author clarified some important points in course of "Indian Study" of the industrial region as the result of this study. a) When once industrialisation starts at one particular region, its l..~0pulation reaches 5.7 times after 30 years of the original stage like Asansol-Durgapur area. b) Along with this tempo, 61 per cent of the worker goes to manufacturing factories every day, for example, in Jamshedpur, inspite of 70 per cent of the total worker in India works in the agricultural field. c) There are only 24 per cent of people who are educated up to the standard of basic education in India general, but in major industrial region in Eastern India 52 per cent of its residents are literate and educated. d) Generally speaking workers' welfare in India is very poor and they seldom have a good accomodation near their working places. So that only male worker can be concentrated in industrial regions. It is a great problem of unbalance of sex ratio which is very important factor to keep a regional society psychologically harmonious. e) Moreover industrial workers concentrated in the region from various places of India are gradualy divided into two some sort of social groups, namely high and low soceities which is evident m the progress on "old" and "new" markets at different places in the same one city. This is caused by regionalism of superiority comlpex for western Indian such as Rajasthani, Gujrati, Panjabee, Parsee, etc, Though in India some of industries like atomic energy, railway wagon manufacturing, shose products have reached high standards equal to those of advanced countries, the development of industrial region is being made just on the primary stage. It is clearly understood that the traditional caste system which has been the base for complex Indian society is being destroyed by the regional development of manufacturing industry. However, in modern India the regionalism followed by the social superiority complex is gaining power as a pattern of two social classes, namely upper and lower classes in newly developing industrial regions. And at the same time those two classes are backed up so strongly by the economic power of each class.
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  • Takahiro ASAGIYA, Masataka KATO, Yasuichi NAKAO, Takayoshi FUJEDA, Sho ...
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 49-55
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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    The most primitive peoples are living in Australia, which is one of the most civilized country in the world. In 1788, when the first European settlement established, it was assessed that about 300, OOO Aborigines were living in this country. But these numbers represent a big decline in the Aboriginal population. Now, their numbers did not exceed 80,OOO, full blood Aborigines are about 40,000 and part-aborigines are 39,OOO. One of the reason that took for their population to achieve that figure is probably cruelties of European to Aborigines. That is why, the policy of assimilation for Aborigines set about. Sixteen Government Settlements and thirteen mission stations established. In those institution, Aborigines are encouraged to adopt a settled way of life, and health services, particulary child welfare service, education, housing, vocational traning and employment are provided. Aborigines are also encouraged to take part in the social activities of the community. But, for Aboriginal character, those institutions have not heen operated well. For their none sense of individual ownership, their civilization was confined within hunting and food-gathering culture. And their low producting capacity could not advance their primitive society. Aborigines could not understand the realization of the permanent usurpation of their land, and of fundamental interferences, of Europeans. Nowadays, Australia is not intend to exploit Aboriginal labour. In the future, I think, they must live as a cheap labourer. In that time, it will bigin the new conflict of Aborigines and Europeans.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 56-57
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 57-59
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 59-62
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 62-63
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 63-64
    Published: June 01, 1968
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 65-67
    Published: June 01, 1968
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 67-69
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 69-70
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 70-71
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 72-73
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 73-74
    Published: June 01, 1968
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 74-75
    Published: June 01, 1968
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 75-76
    Published: June 01, 1968
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 76-77
    Published: June 01, 1968
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 77-78
    Published: June 01, 1968
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 79-
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 79-
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 80-
    Published: June 01, 1968
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  • Type: Appendix
    1968 Volume 9 Pages 81-82
    Published: June 01, 1968
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  • Type: Appendix
    1968 Volume 9 Pages App1-
    Published: June 01, 1968
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  • Type: Cover
    1968 Volume 9 Pages Cover3-
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1968 Volume 9 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 01, 1968
    Released: April 08, 2017
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