Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
ISSN-L : 1346-9843
Volume 68 , Issue 5
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
Clinical Investigation
  • The Kyushu Lipid Intervention Study
    Mikio Iwashita, Yasuyuki Matsushita, Jun Sasaki, Kikuo Arakawa, Sumino ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 405-409
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background The role of serum total cholesterol (TC) in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) may differ in different age groups. Methods and Results The relation of serum TC and other risk factors to CHD events was examined in middle-aged (<65 years) and elderly (≥65 years) men separately in the Kyushu Lipid Intervention Study (KLIS). Subjects were 4,349 men aged 45-74 years with serum TC of 220 mg/dl or greater who had no history of myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, or stroke. There were 123 CHD events (ie, myocardial infarction, coronary bypass surgery, coronary angioplasty, cardiac death, and sudden death) in a 5-year follow-up period. The Cox proportional hazards model was used with baseline and follow-up serum TC, baseline high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and other factors as covariates. Serum TC concentration during the follow-up, not at baseline, was associated with an increased risk of CHD events, especially in elderly men. High concentrations of serum HDL cholesterol were associated with a modest, statistically nonsignificant decrease in the risk among middle-aged men. An increased risk of CHD events associated with diabetes mellitus was greater in middle-aged men. Hypertension and smoking were not measurably related to the risk in either middle-aged or elderly men. Conclusions Both the serum TC concentration during follow-up and diabetes mellitus are important predictors of CHD events in Japanese men with moderately elevated serum TC. (Circ J 2004; 68: 405 - 409)
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  • Hiroshi Sato, Yukihiro Koretsune, Masatake Fukunami, Kazuhisa Kodama, ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 410-416
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Abnormal findings, including silent cerebral infarction, are frequently observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF); however, the prevalence and prevention strategy for these lesions have not been extensively studied. In the present study the preventive effects of aspirin on silent ischemic lesions was investigated. Methods and Results Silent lesions were counted using cranial MRI performed in 78 neurologically normal adults with sinus rhythm and in 212 patients with NVAF without a history of stroke. MRIs were repeated twice in the NVAF patients at 12-month intervals. During the first year, patients received neither antiplatelet agent nor anticoagulant; in the second year, aspirin (330 mg daily) was administered. The prevalence of lesions in the initial MRI was higher in NVAF patients (86.4%) than in sinus rhythm subjects (53.8%; p<0.001). After 12 months without aspirin, new lesions were seen in 20.6% of NVAF patients. The yearly occurrence of new lesions was decreased to 9.6% during the year of treatment with aspirin (p=0.014). Conclusions In patients with NVAF, abnormal lesions are frequently observed by MRI and aspirin treatment may be effective in preventing further small silent lesions. (Circ J 2004; 68: 410 - 416)
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  • Hiroshi Inoue, Takashi Nozawa, Ken Okumura, Atsushi Iwasa, Jong-Dae Le ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 417-421
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Although warfarin reduces embolic events in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), it is used less frequently in Japan and so the aim of the present study was to determine the attitudes of Japanese cardiologists toward antithrombotic therapy for NVAF patients. Methods and Results Subjects were NVAF patients enrolled in a prospective study in 1999. Clinical characteristics, type of NVAF and antithrombotic therapy, risk factors for embolism, and contraindications to warfarin were analyzed. Risk factors included advanced age (>75 years), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and prior embolic events. Contraindications to warfarin included bleeding tendency, malignant tumors and others. Among 509 patients (66.6±10.3 years old), 359 had at least one risk factor for embolism and of these 359 patients, 200 (55.7%) received warfarin (ie, modest adherence to the guideline for antithrombotic therapy). There were 159 patients who had at least one risk factor but did not receive warfarin; 70.4% of these received antiplatelet drugs. Contraindications were found in only 22.6% and paroxysmal nature of NVAF seemed a possible reason for non-use of warfarin in 47.2% of 159 patients. Conclusions In Japan warfarin is not used extensively for treatment of NVAF patients having risk factors and the reasons for not using antithrombotic therapy seemed inappropriate in most of patients. (Circ J 2004; 68: 417 - 421)
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  • Nahoko Ikeda, Takanori Yasu, Norifumi Kubo, Taishi Hirahara, Yoshitaka ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 422-426
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Cardiac rupture after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unpredictable and almost always fatal, so the present study reviewed all the clinical characteristics of patients with cardiac rupture to determine if its occurrence can be predicted. Methods and Results The clinical characteristics of 1,296 consecutive AMI patients from January 1992 to February 2002 were retrospectively evaluated using multi-logistic analysis. Cardiac rupture occurred in 45 patients (3.5%), comprising left ventricular free wall rupture (n=23), ventricular septal perforation (n=20) and papillary muscle rupture (n=2). Early-phase rupture (within 72 h after AMI onset) was associated with anterior infarction. Of the 45 patients who experienced ruptures, 24 (53.3%) survived to discharge; 21 (46.6%) of the 45 ruptures occurred after admission. Successful reperfusion therapy was performed within 24 h for 840 patients. The incidence of rupture was significantly lower for reperfused patients than for non-reperfused patients (0.6% vs 3.5%, respectively; p<0.01). Peak C-reactive protein concentration was a reliable predictor of late-phase rupture (p=0.01), but not of early-phase rupture. Conclusions Reperfusion therapy appears to aid in the prevention of cardiac rupture, especially late-phase rupture. (Circ J 2004; 68: 422 - 426)
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  • Third Year Follow-up
    Nobuyuki Shiba, Jun Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Shinozaki, Yoshito Koseki, Masa ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 427-434
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Because the real prognosis of Japanese patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is still unknown, the aim of the present study was to clarify the prognosis and predictors for mortality of CHF patients using the Chronic Heart failure Analysis and Registry in Tohoku district (CHART). Methods and Results As of February 2003, 1,154 stable CHF patients with optimum standard therapy have been enrolled in the registry since February 2000 and of these, 175 died of some cause during the follow-up period (mean follow-up period, 1.9±0.9 years), giving 1- and 3-year all-cause mortality rates of 7.3% and 20.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age at entry, diabetes, ventricular tachycardia, plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and rural residence were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 1.028, 1.940, 1.650, 1.001, 1.713, and 2.226). The 1-year all-cause mortality rates of CHF patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction <25%, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter ≥60 mm, BNP ≥500 pg/ml, NYHA ≥ III, or with underlying coronary artery disease were 15.0%, 11.4%, 16.8%, 16.3%, and 10.8%, respectively. Conclusions The prognosis of Japanese CHF patients with these predictors remains poor. A stratified approach is necessary to improve their survival and quality of life. (Circ J 2004; 68: 427 - 434)
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  • Masayuki Teraguchi, Yumiko Ikemoto, Gen Unishi, Hiroyuki Ohkohchi, Yoh ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 435-438
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background The physiological role of the CD36 molecule in pediatric heart disease has not been fully investigated. Methods and Results The CD36 antigen in platelets and monocytes was measured by flow cytometry in 189 patients with various heart diseases; 15 (7.9%) had a diagnosis of CD36 deficiency (type I: 2[1 boy, 1 girl], type II: 13 [6 boys, 7 girls]). The prevalence in each heart disease was as follows: group A (congenital heart disease) 7.6% (9/118, type II: 9 [6 boys, 3 girls]); group B (myocardial disease) 20.0% (3/15, I: 1 girl, II: 2[1 boy, 1 girl]), group C (Kawasaki disease) 4.9% (2/41, II: 2 [1 boy, 1 girl]), group D (arrhythmia): 6.7% (1/15, I: 1 boy). Three patients in group B had transient myocardial damage, which was thought to be related to abnormal myocardial long-chain fatty acid metabolism. Conclusion The frequency of CD36 deficiency in childhood heart disease was almost identical to that of healthy individuals. Some patients with CD36 deficiency may be susceptible to myocardial damage in the presence of disadvantageous conditions, such as serious infections or massive steroid therapy. (Circ J 2004; 68: 435 - 438)
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  • Kazuya Akiyama, Jun Hirota, Naohito Taniyasu, Kazuma Maisawa, Yutaka K ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 439-443
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Aortic valvular regurgitation has several mechanisms and the present study investigated its clinicopathological correlations with aortic valve fenestration. Methods and Results Six male patients with massive regurgitation and enlarged fenestrations or ruptured fenestrated fibrous cords underwent aortic valve replacement. The clinicopathological features showed many similarities. Four cases had family histories of aortic regurgitation. All six patients showed moderate to severe myxomatous degeneration of the aortic valve and enlargement of aortic annulus. Four patients had 1-2 ruptured fibrous cords, located at the right coronary cusp. Echocardiographic examinations showed an abnormal fibrous cord attached to the prolapsing cusp in 3 cases with ruptured fenestrated valve and detailed examination by transesophageal echocardiography showed an intact fenestrated fibrous cord at the commissure in 1 case. Conclusion Extensively fenestrated cusps with an enlarged aortic annulus because of myxomatous degeneration can cause chronic regurgitation or sudden deterioration after rupture of the fibrous cord. There is an increasing incidence of fenestration-related aortic regurgitation in the Japanese population. An important pathogenetic factor in male patients is myxomatous degeneration of the aortic cusp and annulus. (Circ J 2004; 68: 439 - 443)
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  • Differences to Hypertensive Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
    Kazuhide Ogino, Kazuyoshi Ogura, Toru Kinugawa, Shuichi Osaki, Masahik ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 444-450
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or hypertensive heart disease (HHD) have increased concentrations of various neurohumoral factors. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in the neurohumoral profiles of HCM and HHD. Methods and Results Plasma concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were measured in 40 patients with HCM, 35 with HHD, and 15 controls. Additionally, the concentrations of these neurohumoral factors in the coronary sinus and aortic root were measured in 12 HCM patients and 10 controls. Plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, ANP and BNP were significantly higher in HCM than HHD and controls. In HCM, there was no significant correlation between the left ventricular mass index and any neurohumoral factor. The plasma BNP concentration significantly correlated with left intraventricular pressure gradient in HCM. There were significant differences in the plasma concentrations of ANP and BNP between HCM with and without left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Transcardiac production of BNP was significantly higher in patients with obstructive HCM than in those with non-obstructive HCM. Conclusions The significant neurohumoral differences between HCM and HHD were the plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, ANP and BNP. In HCM patients, the plasma BNP concentration may reflect the intraventricular pressure gradient and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction whereas the plasma ANP concentration reflects only the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. (Circ J 2004; 68: 444 - 450)
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  • Hiroshi Funayama, San-e Ishikawa, Norifumi Kubo, Takuji Katayama, Taka ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 451-454
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background To elucidate the involvement of inflammation in coronary artery occlusion, the regional changes in cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the infarct-related coronary artery were determined in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Cardiac catheterization was carried out within 24 h of the onset of infarction in 36 patients. Blood samples were collected from the infarct-related coronary artery, the ascending aorta and the peripheral vein. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations were elevated in all 3 samples. Particularly, the plasma IL-6 concentrations were 14.4 pg/ml in the infarct-related coronary artery, a value significantly greater than the respective 8.0 pg/ml and 6.5 pg/ml in the ascending aorta and peripheral vein. Plasma IL-6 concentrations in the infarct-related coronary artery had positive correlation with all of the following references measured by intravascular ultrasound: external elastic membrane cross-sectional area (EEM-CSA) (r=0.47, p<0.01), lesion EEM-CSA (r=0.51, p<0.01) and plaque area (r=0.48, p<0.01). MMP-9 was increased regionally in the infarct-related coronary artery, at 11.8 ng/ml vs 8.2 ng/ml in the ascending aorta (p<0.001). Conclusions The present findings suggest that IL-6 at least is released from the ruptured vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque and that regional activation of macrophages is involved in the occlusive process of coronary artery in acute myocardial infarction. (Circ J 2004; 68: 451-454)
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  • A Serial Intravascular Ultrasound Study
    Akio Kawamura, Yasushi Asakura, Shiro Ishikawa, Teruo Okabe, Akiko Yam ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 455-461
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Directional coronary atherectomy prior to stent implantation (DCA-stent) is expected to be an effective approach to reduce restenosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether DCA-stent has advantages over DCA alone or stenting alone using serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods and Results Serial (pre-, post- and follow-up) IVUS was performed in 187 native coronary lesions treated with each of the 3 strategies. External elastic membrane cross-sectional area (CSA), lumen CSA and plaque CSA were measured. Baseline characteristics were similar. Postprocedural lumen CSA was largest after DCA-stent (11.2±2.7 mm2) and DCA (10.8±2.5 mm2) than stenting alone (9.0±2.9 mm2) (p<0.0005). Follow-up lumen loss was similar. As a result, follow-up lumen CSA was largest after DCA-stent (DCA-stent: 9.1±3.4 mm2, DCA: 7.8±4.2 mm2, stent: 6.3±2.6 mm2, p<0.0005). There was a trend toward a lower rate of restenosis with DCA-stent (DCA-stent, 12.5%; DCA, 18.3%; stent, 18.8%; p=0.57). Conclusions DCA-stent is superior to both DCA alone and stent alone in terms of the ability to gain a larger lumen as assessed by IVUS. (Circ J 2004; 68: 455 - 461)
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  • Toshihiko Sugi, Hiroshi Satoh, Akihiko Uehara, Hideki Katoh, Hajime Te ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 462-466
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Stent implantation in coronary angioplasty has reduced the rate of restenosis, but many patients still undergo follow-up coronary angiography (CAG). The present study was a multi-center retrospective analysis of the usefulness of stress single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compared with follow-up CAG in stent-implanted patients who remained asymptomatic during the follow-up period. Methods and Results The study group of 103 patients underwent both SPECT and CAG at 4-9 months after stent implantation. Restenosis occurred in 20 (19%) of 106 vessel territories, and a reversible perfusion defect was found in 32 (30%) territories. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of SPECT were 65%, 78%, 41%, 91%, and 76%, respectively. The accuracy was lower in territories with a prior myocardial infarction (71%), in the left circumflex artery (58%), and in cases with three-vessel disease (63%). The negative predictive value was high, but 7 false negative cases included 4 cases with prior myocardial infarction, and 2 cases with reversible defects in other vessel territories. Conclusions Stress SPECT imaging is a useful tool for following up patients with coronary stent implantation, and follow-up CAG could be omitted in patients with negative SPECT imaging, no prior myocardial infarction, one- or two-vessel disease, and sufficient stress loading. (Circ J 2004; 68: 462 - 466)
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  • Yoshitaka Hayashi, Masakatsu Ohtani, Yoshiki Sawa, Taizo Hiraishi, Hir ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 467-472
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background The present study was designed to examine the hypothesis that minimally-diluted blood cardioplegia (BCP) supplemented with potassium and magnesium provides superior myocardial protection in comparison with the standard-diluted BCP for a combination of `initial, continuous, and intermittent bolus' BCP administration. Methods and Results Seventy patients undergoing elective coronary revascularization between 1997 and 2001 (M : F =55:15, mean age 67.6±7.5 years) were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group C (n=35) was given the standard 4:1-diluted blood-crystalloid BCP, and Group M (n=35) was given minimally-diluted BCP supplemented with potassium-chloride and magnesium-sulfate. The BCP temperature was maintained at 30°C. Cardioplegic arrest was induced with 2 min of initial antegrade BCP infusion, followed by continuous retrograde BCP infusion. Intermittent antegrade BCP was infused every 30 min for 2 min. The time required for achieving cardioplegic arrest was significantly shorter in Group M (47.5±16.3 vs 62.5±17.6 s, p<0.0001). The number of patients showing spontaneous heart beat recovery after reperfusion was significantly larger in Group M (28 vs 15, p=0.0029), and the number of patients suffering from atrial fibrillation during the postoperative period was significantly smaller in Group M (n=3 vs 11, p=0.034). Both the postoperative maximum dopamine dose (3.57±2.46 vs 5.44±2.23 μg/kg per min, p=0.0014) and peak creatine kinase-MB (19.5±8.5 vs 25.8±11.9 IU/L, p=0.0128) were significantly less in Group M. The number of patients showing paradoxical movement of the ventricular septum in the early postoperative echocardiography was significantly smaller in Group M (9 vs 24, p=0.0007). Conclusions These results suggest that `initial, continuous and intermittent bolus' administration of minimally-diluted BCP supplemented with potassium and magnesium is a reliable and effective technique for intraoperative myocardial protection. (Circ J 2004; 68: 467 - 472)
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  • Hiroshi Morita, Kengo Fukushima-Kusano, Satoshi Nagase, Kohei Miyaji, ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 473-476
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Some studies have shown that patients with Brugada syndrome (BS) have atrioventricular conduction disturbance, but their sinus node function has not been evaluated. Methods and Results The patients group consisted of 59 male patients and 1 female patient with BS. Supraventricular and ventricular programmed electrical stimulation (PES) was performed. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) or sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia was induced by ventricular PES in 26 patients with BS (VF group), but was not induced in the other 34 patients (non-VF group). Sinus node function and conduction of the atrioventricular (AV) node in the control group, non-VF group and VF group were evaluated. Sinus node function was attenuated and the His - ventricle interval was prolonged in the VF group (corrected sinus node recovery time: 452±126 ms (VF group), 324±146 ms (non-VF group), Sino-atrial conduction time: 179±60 ms (VF group), 127±60 ms (non-VF group), His-ventricle interval: 41±9 ms (VF group), 35±8 ms (non-VF group)). Conclusion The function of both the sinus node and AV node are attenuated in patients with PES-induced VF. (Circ J 2004; 68: 473 - 476)
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  • Ken Nagao, Nariyuki Hayashi, Katsuo Kanmatsuse, Satoru Kikuchi, Kimio ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 477-482
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Although the circulating concentration of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has both a prognostic and diagnostic value in heart disease, no data are available regarding its resuscitative value for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods and Results The present study was a prospective study of 401 patients whose BNP was measured on arrival at the emergency room after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a cardiac cause. The primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge. The unadjusted rate of survival to hospital discharge decreased in a stepwise fashion among patients in increasing quartiles of BNP concentration (p<0.001). After adjusting for independent predictors of resuscitation, the odds ratios for survival to hospital discharge in the second, third and fourth quartiles of BNP were 0.13 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.04-0.46), 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03-0.41), and 0.004 (95% CI, 0.00-0.16), respectively. The BNP cutoff value of 100 pg/ml for survival had a sensitivity of 83% and a negative predictive value of 96%. Conclusions The measurement of BNP was found to provide valuable predictive information for survival to hospital discharge in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac etiology. (Circ J 2004; 68: 477 - 482)
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  • Kunihisa Miwa, Katsuhisa Ishii, Toshinori Makita, Nobuaki Okuda
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 483-487
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background It is not known whether multivessel coronary spasm occurs spontaneously in patients who have variant angina (VA) with demonstrated multivessel spasm induced by intracoronary injection of acetylcholine (ACh). Regional left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction or wall motion abnormality may persist after an episode of coronary vasospasm. Color kinesis (CK) is a recent development that facilitates the echocardiographic evaluation of regional diastolic wall motion. Methods and Results Regional diastolic wall motion was evaluated using CK in 26 patients with VA within 1 week of the last episode of angina. The LV segmental filling fraction in the short-axis view during the first 30% of the diastolic filling time, expressed as a percentage, was used to objectively identify postischemic diastolic endocardial motion asynchrony. Diastolic asynchrony or regional LV delayed relaxation was noted in all 26 (100%) patients and in 14 (54%) it was detected in multiple vascular territories, suggesting multivessel spasm. Multivessel spasm was induced by ACh in 11 (79%) of the patients with suspected multivessel spasm by CK. In 11 (92%) of the 12 patients with multivessel spasm induced by ACh multiple regions of delayed relaxation had been noted by CK. The regions of delayed relaxation were largely consistent with the territories perfused by the arteries reacting to ACh (sensitivity: 96%, specificity: 91%). Conclusion ACh induced spasm in the same coronary arteries as those perfusing the regions with delayed diastolic wall motion detected by CK in most of the patients with VA, suggesting that multivessel spasm does occur spontaneously in patients with susceptible arteries. (Circ J 2004; 68: 483 - 487)
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Experimental Investigation
  • Hironosuke Sakamoto, Tetsuo Sakamaki, Tsugiyasu Kanda, Yoko Tsuchiya, ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 488-493
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Cardiac myxomas are generally considered benign, but malignant tumors have been reported. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenic factor, plays a role in the growth, progression, and metastasis of solid tumors and it has been reported that VEGF expression is upregulated in cardiac myxomas that have a high microvessel density. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cardiac myxoma cells possess a VEGF-autocrine system that regulates tumor growth. Methods and Results Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the presence of VEGF and its receptors, VEGFR-1 (flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/flk-1), in the cytoplasm of tumor cells from 18 of 18 myxoma tissue specimens examined. Two different myxoma cell lines were established and constitutively secreted large amounts of VEGF as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 mRNA was detected in both cell lines by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Myxoma cell proliferation, as determined by thymidine incorporation, was enhanced by the addition of VEGF in a dose-dependent manner, and cell proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of a neutralizing VEGF antibody. Conclusions These results indicate that cardiac myxoma cells possess a VEGF-autocrine system, which could contribute to the malignant potential of histologically benign myxomas through direct stimulation of tumor cell growth as well as through induction of angiogenesis. (Circ J 2004; 68: 488 - 493)
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  • Osamu Kinebuchi, Hideo Mitamura, Akiko Shiroshita-Takeshita, Yasuo Kur ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 494-500
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background Calcium overload plays a major role in the development of electrical and mechanical remodeling during atrial fibrillation, but the potential of verapamil, a Ca blocker, for preventing atrial electrical remodeling remains controversial. Methods and Results Pacing and recording electrodes were sutured to the right atrium in 16 dogs. After a 5-day recovery period, rapid atrial pacing at 400 ppm was initiated in 8 dogs (control group). In the remaining 8 dogs, oral administration of verapamil (8 mg/kg per day) was started 1 week before the initiation of rapid pacing (verapamil group). On the day before and at 2, 7, 14 days after rapid pacing, electrophysiological (EP) and transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) studies were performed under autonomic blockade. In response to rapid pacing, EP and TEE parameters changed progressively in the control group (p<0.05 vs day 0), whereas in the verapamil group, no significant changes in the various parameters were observed for the first 7 days. However, verapamil failed to prevent progression of both types of remodeling after 14 days of pacing. Conclusion Verapamil can attenuate the progression of electrical and mechanical remodeling of the atrium for at least 7 days. (Circ J 2004; 68: 494 - 500)
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Case Report
  • Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Hidetaka Oku, Susumu Nakamoto, Manabu Mukobayashi, Ei ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 501-503
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A woman with double outlet left ventricle (DOLV) had undergone a Rastelli operation using a prosthetic Björk Shiley valve and who was receiving anticoagulant drug delivered a healthy male infant. Oral warfarin was replaced by heparin from the 5th to the 13th week of gestation and for the last 5 weeks of gestation. Successful pregnancy in patients with DOLV after a Rastelli operation using a prosthetic valve is possible with careful maintenance. (Circ J 2004; 68: 501 - 503)
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  • Hiroyuki Tanaka, Takashi Narisawa, Takanobu Mori, Yoshirou Masuda, Dai ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 504-506
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Papillary fibroelastomas of the heart are relatively rare benign tumors and although they can be symptom free, symptoms such as cerebral ischemia and cardiac infarction can be lethal. It is important to diagnose this tumor using echocardiography, because lethal embolisms can be prevented by surgical resection. Recurrence of this tumor has not been reported and multiple tumors are rare. The present report is a case of double primary aortic valve fibroelastoma with aortic regurgitation diagnosed 4 years after surgery for a left ventricular fibroelastoma with mitral valvular disease. (Circ J 2004; 68: 504 - 506)
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  • Keiichiro Tayama, Hidetoshi Akashi, Eiki Tayama, Shuji Fukunaga, Takem ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 507-508
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 53-year-old woman who had undergone aortic valve replacement with a Starr-Edwards (S-E) valve (Model 1260) and open mitral commissurotomy 28 years previously was hospitalized with cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and a normally functioning S-E prosthesis. At reoperation, the mitral and aortic valves were replaced with St Jude bileaflet mechanical prostheses. Examination of the explanted S-E prosthesis revealed no structural abnormality other than lipid infiltration of the silastic ball. (Circ J 2004; 68: 507 - 508)
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  • Eisaku Nakane, Tatsuji Kono, Yosio Sasaki, Yasunobu Tokaji, Takahide I ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 509-511
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 62-year-old female with palpitations was admitted to hospital where she recorded 12,299 monofocal ventricular premature contractions (VPCs) in 24 h and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) on exertion. She had hypokalemia with renal potassium wasting, a chloride-resistant metabolic alkalosis, elevated plasma renin, elevated plasma aldosterone (relative to the serum K concentration), hypomagnesemia with renal magnesium wasting, decreased urine calcium excretion, and normal blood pressure. The hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia were thought to have precipitated the VT. The coronary angiogram showed normal coronary arteries; however, the left ventriculogram revealed akinesis of the posterolateral wall. Because the VT could not be induced by programmed electrical stimulation either before or during intravenous administration of isoproterenol, the VPC with the same QRS morphology as the VT became the target of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RF-CA). Intracardiac mapping showed that the earliest activation site was situated in the asynergic area of the left ventricle (LV) and radiofrequency catheter ablation directed at the LV asynergy area completely eliminated the VPCs without any complications. During the follow-up period (6 months), she was free from palpitation and VT was not clinically documented. (Circ J 2004; 68: 509 - 511)
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Rapid Communication
  • Prediction of Wall Motion Recovery After Reperfused Anterior Myocardial Infarction
    Hiroshi Wada, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Takanori Yasu, Yoshiaki Tsukamoto, N ...
    2004 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 512-514
    Published: 2004
    Released: April 25, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background After reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), evaluation of transmural myocardial microcirculation can indicate prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the evaluation of transmural myocardial microcirculation by newly developed 4-slice computed tomography (CT) can estimate the recovery of left ventricular function. Methods and Results Seventeen consecutive patients who had anterior AMI with a total occlusion in the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) and who had undergone successful balloon reperfusion therapy within 24 h of the onset of AMI were examined. Four-slice CT was performed 10-14 days after AMI onset. The median of the epicardial perfusion ratio (infarcted anterior epicardial CT number/intact lateral epicardial CT number ratio = 92%) was used to categorize the cases into 2 groups: the transmural infarction group (n=8) and the subendocardial infarction group (n=9). Although no significant difference was observed between myocardial enhancement by CT in the acute phase and anterior wall motion or ejection fraction in the acute phase, the transmural infarction group showed poor recovery of anterior wall motion at 6 months after AMI onset, whereas the subendocardial infarction group exhibited good recovery of regional and global left ventricular function. Conclusions Transmural myocardial microcirculation imaged by 4-slice CT can predict wall motion recovery after AMI. (Circ J 2004; 68: 512 - 514)
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