Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
ISSN-L : 1346-9843
Volume 78 , Issue 10
Showing 1-38 articles out of 38 articles from the selected issue
Message From the Editor-in-Chief
Reviews
  • Priscilla Gross, Isabelle Six, Said Kamel, Ziad A. Massy
    Type: REVIEW
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2339-2346
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: July 31, 2014
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    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by high cardiovascular morbidity/mortality, which is linked in part to vascular calcification (VC) and endothelial dysfunction (ED). Hyperphosphatemia, a feature of CKD, is a well-known inducer of VC in preclinical models and is associated with poor outcomes in epidemiological studies. However, it remains to be seen whether lowering phosphate levels in CKD patients reduces VC and the morbidity/mortality rate. Furthermore, it is now clear from preclinical and clinical studies that phosphate is involved in ED. The present article reviews the direct and indirect mechanisms (eg, via fibroblast growth factor 23 and/or parathyroid hormone) by which hyperphosphatemia influence the onset of VC and ED in CKD. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2339–2346)
  • Jeffrey A. Towbin
    Type: REVIEW
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2347-2356
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: September 02, 2014
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    Cardiomyopathies (ie, diseases of the heart muscle) are major causes of morbidity and mortality. A significant percentage of patients with cardiomyopathies have genetic-based, inheritable disease and, over the past 2 decades the genetic causes of these disorders have been increasingly discovered. The genes causing these disorders when they are mutated appear to encode proteins that frame a “final common pathway” for that specific disorder, but the specifics of the phenotype, including age of onset, severity, and outcome is variable for reasons not yet understood. The “final common pathways” for the classified forms of cardiomyopathy include the sarcomere in the primarily diastolic dysfunction disorders hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy, the linkage of the sarcomere and sarcolemma in the systolic dysfunction disorder dilated cardiomyopathy, and the desmosome in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is an overlap disorder and it appears that any of these “final common pathways” can be involved depending on the specific form of LVNC. The genetics and mechanisms responsible for these clinical phenotypes will be described. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2347–2356)
  • Gautam G. Lalani, Rishi Trikha, David E. Krummen, Sanjiv M. Narayan
    Type: REVIEW
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2357-2366
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: September 10, 2014
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    Outcomes for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have changed little despite many advances in technology. In large part, this reflects fundamental uncertainty about the mechanisms for AF in humans, which must reconcile diverse observations. Despite the complexity of AF, many electrophysiologists have witnessed modulation of ‘chaotic’ AF after the first few ablation lesions, or before lines are complete or trigger sites are isolated, and numerous analyses demonstrate temporospatial stability in AF. These common observations challenge the concept that AF is driven by spatially disorganized, widespread mechanisms. Using mathematical techniques applied to other complex systems, evidence is rapidly accumulating that human AF is largely sustained by localized rotors and focal sources. Elimination of sources by Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation (FIRM)-guided ablation has been shown by independent laboratories to substantially improve success compared with pulmonary vein isolation alone. These data advance our mechanistic understanding of AF. Randomized trials are underway to verify the relative efficacy of ablation at AF sources (substrate) vs. conventional trigger ablation. The renewed focus on AF substrates is a paradigm shift, but also a re-alignment of concepts for AF towards those for other cardiac arrhythmias that are generally defined by sustaining mechanisms (substrates). (Circ J 2014; 78: 2357–2366)
  • Masahiro Yasaka, Gregory Y.H. Lip
    Type: REVIEW
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2367-2372
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: September 10, 2014
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    The incidence of intracranial bleeding is known to be markedly higher in Japan and other East Asian countries than in countries outside of East Asia. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have much lower risk of intracranial bleeding than warfarin, so we reviewed the effect of this class of drugs on intracranial bleeding in Asian patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Warfarin therapy in Asian or East Asian populations appears to be associated with lower efficacy, poorer safety and a much greater risk of intracranial bleeding when compared with non-Asian or non-East Asian groups. Reflecting the higher incidence of intracranial bleeding in Asia and East Asia, Asian physicians in charge usually keep the prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) lower than is the case in Western countries. Irrespective of the lower PT-INR of warfarin, the incidence of intracranial bleeding is still high in Asia and East Asia. Because each NOAC strongly reduces the incidence of intracranial bleeding when compared with warfarin, use of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban or edoxaban would seem the best option for stroke prevention when treating Asian patients, including Japanese with NVAF. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2367–2372)
Editorials
Original Articles
Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
  • Hiroshi Inoue, Hirotsugu Atarashi, Ken Okumura, Takeshi Yamashita, Nao ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2388-2393
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 06, 2014
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    Background:It is disputed whether the risk of cardiogenic embolism varies with type of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although several studies have found that the risk of cardiogenic embolism was similar among paroxysmal and persistent/permanent AF, a few studies have found that patients with paroxysmal AF had a lower rate of stroke and systemic embolism than those with persistent/permanent AF. In the present study, post-hoc analysis of the J-RHYTHM Registry was done to compare the risk of thromboembolic events among 3 types of non-valvular AF (NVAF).Methods and Results:A total of 7,406 NVAF patients were followed up prospectively for 2 years. At baseline, warfarin was used for 78.6%, 90.0%, and 91.8% of patients with paroxysmal, persistent, and permanent AF, respectively. There were 126 thromboembolic events during the follow-up period. The crude event rate was 2-fold higher among the patients with permanent NVAF (2.29%) than among those with paroxysmal (1.16%) or persistent (1.20%) NVAF (P=0.001). After adjusting for warfarin use and CHA2DS2-VASc score components, however, the hazard ratio for thromboembolism did not differ between paroxysmal (reference) and permanent NVAF (1.007; 95% confidence interval: 0.955–1.061).Conclusions:The crude rate of thromboembolic events was higher in permanent NVAF than in paroxysmal NVAF, but after adjusting for warfarin use and CHA2DS2-VASc score components, paroxysmal and permanent NVAF patients had similar risk of thromboembolism. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2388–2393)
  • Masateru Takigawa, Atsushi Takahashi, Taishi Kuwahara, Yoshihide Takah ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2394-2401
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 21, 2014
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    Background:The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and predictors (which have not previously been fully elucidated) of late-phase thromboembolism (TE) after catheter ablation (CA) for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF).Methods and Results:We studied 1,156 consecutive patients (61±10 years; 891 men; CHADS2score, 0.8±1.0) after CA for symptomatic paroxysmal AF and examined the details of late-phase TE. During a follow-up of 49.5±21.9 months (median, 47 months; range, 6–113 months) after CA, 9 patients (0.78%) developed late-phase TE, all of which were ischemic stroke. Of these, 5 patients with AF recurrence experienced cardioembolism; the AF was asymptomatic at recurrence. The remaining 4 without AF recurrence experienced cardioembolism (n=1), small-vessel occlusion (n=1), large-artery atherosclerosis (n=1), and stroke of other determined etiology (n=1). On Kaplan-Meier analysis patients with structural heart disease (P=0.003), AF recurrence after the final CA (P=0.01), prior stroke (P=0.002), CHADS2score ≥2 (P=0.0002), left ventricular ejection fraction <50% (P<0.0001), and spontaneous echo contrast on transesophageal echocardiogram (P=0.0004) had a significantly higher risk of late-phase TE. Multivariate analysis indicated that CHADS2score ≥2 (HR, 4.49; 95% CI: 1.08–22.56; P=0.04) independently predicted late-phase TE.Conclusions:The incidence of TE was low after CA for paroxysmal AF, but CHADS2score ≥2 independently increased the risk of late-phase TE. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2394–2401)
  • Jedrzej Kosiuk, Emmanuel Koutalas, Michael Doering, Sotirios Nedios, P ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2402-2407
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 22, 2014
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    Background:The incidence of postoperative complications following pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations in patients treated with new oral anticoagulation agents has not been studied. Here we present a first comparison of complications after cardiac rhythm device (CRD) implantations in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with dabigatran or uninterrupted warfarin.Methods and Results:Using a case-control study design, we compared complications within 30 days after 236 CRD procedures performed under uninterrupted warfarin (n=118) or interrupted dabigatran (n=118).There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of both groups. In the warfarin group, 9 (8%) pocket hematomas were observed vs. 3 (3%) in the dabigatran group (P=0.075). Two complications in the warfarin group necessitated surgical intervention as opposed to none in the dabigatran group (P=0.156). The postprocedural blood loss expressed as a drop in hemoglobin was significantly greater in the warfarin group (−0.9±0.7 vs. −0.5±0.4 mmol/L, P=0.023). In the dabigatran group, 1 case of transient ischemic attack occurred. The mean time to hospital discharge was shorter in patients treated with dabigatran (2.5±2.3 vs. 3.8±4.1 days, P=0.02).Conclusions:The incidence and severity of bleeding complications may be lower in patients treated with periprocedurally discontinued dabigatran when compared with uninterrupted warfarin therapy. Further evaluation of peri-interventional complications and establishment of an optimal anticoagulation management protocol are needed. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2402–2407)
Cardiovascular Intervention
  • Takashi Kubo, Takashi Akasaka, Ken Kozuma, Kazuo Kimura, Tetsuya Fusaz ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Cardiovascular Intervention
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2408-2414
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 05, 2014
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    Background:The aim of the present study was to compare vascular healing response between everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and biolimus-eluting stent (BES) using optical coherence tomography (OCT).Methods and Results:In the NOBORI Biolimus-Eluting Versus XIENCE V/PROMUS Everolimus-Eluting Stent Trial (NEXT), a formal OCT substudy investigated 91 patients (55 EES-treated lesions in 48 patients and 51 BES-treated lesions in 43 patients) with 8–12 months follow-up imaging at 18 centers. A total of 980 frames with 8,996 struts in EES and 907 frames with 8,745 struts in BES were analyzed. Mean neointima thickness in EES and BES was 105±82μm and 91±80μm, respectively (P<0.001). With regard to stent-treated lesions, the percentage of struts not covered by neointima (3±7% vs. 9±10%, P<0.001) and the frequency of stent-treated lesions with any uncovered struts (n=28, 51% vs. n=42, 82%; P<0.001) were significantly lower in EES compared with BES. In addition, the percentage of malapposed struts (0.2±0.8% vs. 1.3±2.8%, P=0.006) and the frequency of stent-treated lesions with any malapposed struts (n=6, 11% vs. n=14, 27%; P=0.028) were significantly lower in EES compared with BES.Conclusions:Incomplete vascular healing characterized by the presence of struts not covered by neointima and malapposed struts was less common in EES compared with BES. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2408–2414)
  • Monika Komar, Tadeusz Przewłocki, Maria Olszowska, Bartosz Sobień, Jak ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Cardiovascular Intervention
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2415-2421
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 22, 2014
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    Background:The aim of this study was to prospectively perform ambulatory 24-h ECG monitoring to assess the effects of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD).Methods and Results:A total of 235 consecutive subjects (female, n=163; male, n=72; age, 44.6±14.4 years) were enrolled in the study, who were due undergo ASD closure. Holter monitoring was performed before procedure and at 1, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. During the procedure transient supraventricular arrhythmia occurred in 8 patients (3.4%), and bradycardia in 3 (1.3%). In 3 patients (1.3%) an episode of atrial fibrillation occurred in the first hour after the procedure. In 8 patients (3.4%) transient first-degree atrioventricular block was noted. A significant increase in number of supraventricular extrasystoles (SVES)/24 h was noted 1 month after the procedure (P<0.001). On multiple forward stepwise regression analysis, device size and fluoroscopy time had an influence on increase in number of SVES seen 1 month after the procedure (P<0.001).Conclusions:Transcatheter closure of ASD is associated with a transient increase in supraventricular premature beats and a small risk of conduction abnormalities and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in early follow-up. Transcatheter closure of ASD does not reduce arrhythmia that appears prior to ASD closure. Larger device size and longer procedure time are associated with increased risk of supraventricular arrhythmia on early follow-up. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2415–2421)
Cardiovascular Surgery
  • Young Song, Jae-Kwang Shim, Jong-Wook Song, Chi-Young Shim, Eui-Kyung ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Cardiovascular Surgery
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2422-2430
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 28, 2014
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    Background:Considering the importance of ventricular-vascular coupling, a measure of arterial stiffness may reflect global myocardial performance. We evaluated the predictive value of common carotid arterial circumferential strain (CCA CirS), measured with ultrasound speckle tracking, for hemodynamic deterioration during off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) and assessed its association with echocardiographic indices of myocardial function.Methods and Results:Patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50% were enrolled. Intraoperative hemodynamic variables were compared in relation to CCA CirS tertiles. A total of 96 patients were analyzed. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) during left circumflex artery grafting and sternum closure were lower in the first tertile than in the third tertile. On univariate logistic regression female gender, ratio of early transmitral velocity to annular velocity, pulse pressure, and CCA CirS were predictors of hemodynamic deterioration (defined as decrease in SvO2≥20%), while only CCA CirS remained as an independent predictor after multivariate analysis (OR, 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11–0.68). Area under the curve of CCA CirS for its prediction was 0.730 (95% CI: 0.608–0.852). CCA CirS was strongly associated with tissue Doppler-derived parameters of LV function.Conclusions:CCA CirS is a comprehensive marker reflecting LV function, and a predictor for hemodynamic deterioration during OPCAB in patients with preserved LVEF. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2422–2430)
  • Yoshiyuki Tokuda, Hiroaki Miyata, Noboru Motomura, Hideki Oshima, Akih ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Cardiovascular Surgery
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2431-2438
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 28, 2014
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    Background:The optimal brain protection strategy for use during acute type A aortic dissection surgery is controversial.Methods and Results:We reviewed the results for 2 different methods: antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP), during ascending aortic repair for acute type A aortic dissection for the period between 2008 and 2012 nationwide. Cases involving root repair, arch vessel reconstruction and/or concomitant procedures were excluded. Using the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database, a total of 4,128 patients (ACP, n=2,769; RCP, n=1,359; mean age, 69.1±11.8 years; male 41.9%) were identified. The overall operative mortality was 8.6%. Following propensity score matching, among 1,320 matched pairs, differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 patient groups diminished. Cardiac arrest time (ACP 116±36 vs. RCP102±38 min, P<0.001), perfusion time (192±54 vs. 174±53 min, P<0.001) and operative time (378±117 vs. 340±108 min, P<0.001) were significantly shorter in the RCP group. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding the incidence of operative mortality or neurological complications, including stroke (ACP 11.2% vs. RCP 9.7%). Postoperative ventilation time was significantly longer in the ACP group (ACP 128.9±355.7 vs. RCP 98.5±301.7 h, P=0.018). There were no differences in other early postoperative complications, such as re-exploration, renal failure, and mediastinitis.Conclusions:Among patients undergoing dissection repair without arch vessel reconstruction, RCP had similar mortality and neurological outcome to ACP. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2431–2438)
Heart Failure
  • Domenico Scrutinio, Filippo Mastropasqua, Pietro Guida, Enrico Ammirat ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Heart Failure
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2439-2446
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 26, 2014
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    Background:Renal dysfunction may confound the clinical interpretation of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration. This study investigated whether renal dysfunction influences the prognostic accuracy of NT-proBNP in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF).Methods and Results:We studied 908 ADHF patients. The primary outcome was 12-month mortality. Interaction between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and NT-proBNP in predicting mortality was tested with the likelihood ratio test. The patients were classified into 3 eGFR strata: ≥60, 30–59, and <30 ml·min–1·1.73 m–2. Cox models were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for NT-proBNP, modeled as a dichotomous or categorized variable, within each level of eGFR. NT-proBNP was categorized using optimal cut-offs defined in ROC analysis for each eGFR level. A total of 234 patients (25.8%) died. Testing for interaction was not significant (χ2=0.29; P=0.5928). The adjusted HR for NT-proBNP >5,180 pg/ml was 2.09 (P<0.001) in the highest, 1.7 (P<0.001) in the intermediate, and 3.33 (P=0.010) in the lowest eGFR level. The adjusted HR for NT-proBNP above the optimal cut-offs defined on ROC analysis were 1.5 (P=0.239), 2.2 (P<0.001), and 3.24 (P=0.002), respectively. The models incorporating NT-proBNP as a dichotomous or categorized variable had equivalent C-statistics.Conclusions:There was no evidence of interaction between eGFR and NT-proBNP in predicting mortality. The NT-proBNP cut-off of 5,180 ng/L provided independent prognostic information, irrespective of the level of residual renal function. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2439–2446)
  • Jaewon Oh, Seok-Min Kang, Namki Hong, Jong-Chan Youn, Sungha Park, San ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Heart Failure
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2447-2454
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 28, 2014
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    Background:High-dose statin loading is known to reduce periprocedural myocardial infarction and contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the clinical role of high-dose statin loading in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) remains unknown.Methods and Results:In a prospective, single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label pilot study, patients hospitalized with AHF were randomly assigned to receive oral high-dose atorvastatin loading (80 mg for 3 days, followed by 10 mg/day until discharge) or no statin therapy, on top of optimal HF treatment. The primary outcome measures were changes to the level of biomarkers related to inflammation and renal injury from admission to hospital day 4. No significant changes in the levels of NT-proBNP (−2,627±4,956 vs. −2,981±6,951 pg/ml, P=0.845), hsCRP (−6.1±16.4 vs. −2.1±16.2 mg/L, P=0.105), cystatin C (0.002±0.185 vs. 0.009±0.216 mg/L, P=0.904), ACR (−886.3±1,984.9 vs. −165.6±825.2 mg/day, P=0.124) were observed in either group. In-hospital mortality (4.3% vs. 3.8%, P>0.999) and all-cause mortality at 90 days (4.3% vs. 3.8%, P>0.999) were not significantly different between groups.Conclusions:This pilot study showed that oral high-dose atorvastatin loading may be used safely in patients with AHF, but is not effective in reducing the levels of circulating biomarkers related to inflammation and renal injury during hospitalization. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2447–2454)
  • Yuichi Kawase, Kazushige Kadota, Michitaka Nakamura, Takeshi Tada, Reo ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Heart Failure
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2455-2459
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 26, 2014
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    Background:We investigated the relationship between admission systolic blood pressure (SBP) and all-cause mortality in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) due to aortic stenosis (AS).Methods and Results:We retrospectively reviewed the data for 71 consecutive patients (mean age 85±7 years) who had been hospitalized for ADHF due to AS between January 2006 and August 2012. The primary endpoint of the study was the 1-year all-cause mortality. Clinical outcomes of patients who survived and those who died during a 1-year period were compared. Low admission SBP was defined as <120 mmHg. During the 1-year period, 26 (37%) of the 71 patients died, including 16 (57%) of 28 patients with low SBP and 10 (23%) of 43 patients with normal or high SBP (log-rank P=0.0065). Between the patients who survived and those who died, there were significant differences in admission SBP (152±43 vs. 116±32 mmHg, P<0.001), estimated glomerular filtration rate on admission (43.2±20.3 vs. 28.2±22.2 ml·min–1·1.73 m–2, P=0.005), and left ventricular ejection fraction <50% (33% [15/45] vs. 65% [17/26], P=0.013). Low admission SBP independently predicted 1-year all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–5.57, P=0.033).Conclusions:Low admission SBP is associated with significantly higher 1-year all-cause mortality in patients hospitalized for ADHF due to AS. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2455–2459)
Hypertension and Circulatory Control
  • Nathalie Nasr, Marek Czosnyka, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Marc-Antoine Custau ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Hypertension and Circulatory Control
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2460-2467
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: September 04, 2014
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    Background:The relative stability of cerebral blood flow is maintained by the baroreflex and cerebral autoregulation (CA). We assessed the relationship between baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and CA in patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis or occlusion.Methods and Results:Patients referred for assessment of atherosclerotic unilateral >50% carotid stenosis or occlusion were included. Ten healthy volunteers served as a reference group. BRS was measured using the sequence method. CA was quantified by the correlation coefficient (Mx) between slow oscillations in mean arterial blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocities from transcranial Doppler. Forty-five patients (M/F: 36/9), with a median age of 68 years (IQR:17) were included. Thirty-four patients had carotid stenosis, and 11 patients had carotid occlusion (asymptomatic: 31 patients; symptomatic: 14 patients). The median degree of carotid steno-occlusive disease was 90% (IQR:18). Both CA (P=0.02) and BRS (P<0.001) were impaired in patients as compared with healthy volunteers. CA and BRS were inversely and strongly correlated with each other in patients (rho=0.58, P<0.001) and in healthy volunteers (rho=0.939; P<0.001). Increasing BRS remained strongly associated with impaired CA on multivariate analysis (P=0.004).Conclusions:There was an inverse correlation between CA and BRS in healthy volunteers and in patients with carotid stenosis or occlusion. This might be due to a relative increase in sympathetic drive associated with weak baroreflex enhancing cerebral vasomotor tone and CA. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2460–2467)
Imaging
  • Kiwamu Kamiya, Mamoru Sakakibara, Naoya Asakawa, Shiro Yamada, Takashi ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Imaging
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2468-2476
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 11, 2014
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    Background:Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured on catheterization is now widely used for the diagnosis of functional myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). FFR, however, is invasive and carries potential procedural complications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic capability in functionally significant stenosis identified on FFR, between cardiac magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging (CMR-MPI), single-photon emission computed tomography MPI (SPECT-MPI), and dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients with CAD.Methods and Results:A total of 25 patients who had at least 1 angiographic stenosis ≥50% on coronary angiography was studied. CMR-MPI, SPECT-MPI and DSE were done before FFR measurement. FFR was measured in all 3 major epicardial coronary arteries. Out of 71 vascular territories excluding 4 territories due to inadequate imaging, 29 (41%) had FFR <0.80. The sensitivity of CMR-MPI was significantly higher than that of SPECT-MPI and DSE (P=0.02 and P=0.001, respectively). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for CMR-MPI (AUC, 0.92) was significantly greater than for SPECT-MPI (AUC, 0.73; P=0.006) and DSE (AUC, 0.69; P<0.001).Conclusions:CMR-MPI performed well in the detection of functionally significant stenosis defined according to FFR, and had the highest diagnostic sensitivity among the 3 modalities tested in patients with CAD. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2468–2476)
Ischemic Heart Disease
  • Daiji Yoshikawa, Hideki Ishii, Susumu Suzuki, Kyosuke Takeshita, Soich ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Ischemic Heart Disease
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2477-2482
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 11, 2014
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    Background:Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, has cardiovascular as well as uremic toxicity. We evaluated the prognostic value of blood IS level for long-term outcome.Methods and Results:This study followed 311 patients with coronary artery disease. Plasma IS level and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were determined. The endpoint was a major adverse cardiac event (MACE). Median follow-up was 759 days. IS was significantly higher in patients with MACE than in those without (P<0.001). Patients were divided according to quartiles (Q) of plasma IS level (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). On Kaplan-Meier analysis a significantly lower MACE-free rate was obtained for Q4 compared with the other quartiles (P<0.001). In patients with eGFR ≥90, 89–60, 59–30, 29–15, and <15 ml·min–1·1.73 m–2, the percentage of patients in Q4 was 0%, 13%, 29%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. In patients with eGFR 89–60 ml·min–1·1.73 m–2, there was no significant difference in MACE-free rate between Q4 and the other quartiles; in patients with eGFR 59–30 ml·min–1·1.73 m–2, a significantly lower MACE-free rate was obtained for Q4 compared with the other quartiles (P=0.832 and P=0.015, respectively).Conclusions:Plasma IS level is a significant predictor of MACE, especially in patients with eGFR 59–30 ml·min–1·1.73 m–2. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2477–2482)
  • Keisuke Kuga, Hiro Yamasaki, Ai Hattori, Dong-Zhu Xu, Shigeyuki Watana ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Ischemic Heart Disease
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2483-2491
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 19, 2014
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    Background:Indications of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for patients with an old myocardial infarction (OMI) and left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) were expanded in Western countries after the results of MADIT II. However, the prognosis of OMI patients with LVD and the merits of prophylactic implantation of ICD, based on evidence in Japan, have not yet been clarified. This subanalysis of the Japanese Coronary Artery Disease (JCAD) Study focused on MADIT II-compatible patients to clarify the prognosis of OMI patients with LVD in Japan.Methods and Results:Consecutive 6,868 OMI patients were prospectively followed up for 3 years or until clinical events occurred. 291 patients had left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤30%. Clinical events, congestive heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival and vascular events were significantly more frequent in patients with LVEF ≤30% than in those with better LVEF. In the LVEF ≤30% group, cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival comprised 33% of all-cause deaths, and the survival curves at 2 years of the LVEF ≤30% group were almost compatible with those of the MADIT II ICD group.Conclusions:In this subanalysis, LVD was less frequent than in Western countries. The annual death rate in JCAD was better than for the MADIT II ICD group. The prophylactic use of ICD seemed to be less effective than in Western countries but still expected to be useful for OMI patients with LVD in Japan. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2483–2491)
  • Si Van Nguyen, Takamitsu Nakamura, Kiyotaka Kugiyama
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Ischemic Heart Disease
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2492-2500
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 26, 2014
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    Background:After acute coronary syndrome (ACS), there is a high risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins influence residual cardiovascular risk in patients taking statin. This study examined the predictive value of remnant lipoprotein level for secondary cardiovascular events in patients treated with statins after ACS.Methods and Results:A total of 190 patients treated with statins after ACS were enrolled in the study. The serum level of remnant lipoproteins (remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol; RLP-C) was measured using an immunoseparation method. All the patients were followed prospectively for a maximum period of 70 months or until the occurrence of one of the following events: cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring unplanned coronary revascularization, or ischemic stroke. During the follow-up period, 42 patients had a secondary event. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that a high level of RLP-C (≥5.4 mg/dl; determined on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis) was a significant risk factor for secondary events, independent of conventional risk factors (hazard ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval: 1.40–6.18; P<0.01). The addition of high RLP-C to traditional risk factors enhanced net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) (NRI, 0.66, P=0.0003; and IDI, 0.08, P=0.0002).Conclusions:RLP-C is useful for risk assessment of secondary cardiovascular events in patients treated with statins after ACS. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2492–2500)
Myocardial Disease
  • Hiroaki Tanaka, Chizuko Kamiya, Shinji Katsuragi, Kayo Tanaka, Takekaz ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2501-2506
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 06, 2014
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    Background:The influence of the physiological circulatory changes during pregnancy on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is unclear. There have been no comprehensive studies of pregnant women with HCM in the Japanese population.Methods and Results:A total of 27 pregnancies (23 women with HCM) were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 18 cardiovascular events occurred in 13 of the 27 pregnancies (48%), and 13 of these events (76%) were related to arrhythmia. The cardiovascular events tended to occur in the early stage of pregnancy (≈30 gestational weeks) or postpartum. The events related to arrhythmia mainly occurred in the early stage of pregnancy or at approximately 30 gestational weeks. Four pregnancies were terminated because of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular events occurred in 8 of 9 pregnancies in women on medication before pregnancy (88%), 7 of 10 pregnancies with high CARPREG score (70%), and in 9 of 12 pregnancies with high ZAHARA score (75%).Conclusions:Cardiovascular events occurred in more than half of the pregnant women complicated with HCM, and the arrhythmia is the most common cardiovascular event. Medication in the pre-pregnancy period, and CARPREG or ZAHARA score ≥1 were identified as risk factors of cardiac events during pregnancy or postpartum. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2501–2506)
Pediatric Cardiology and Adult Congenital Heart Disease
  • Takuro Kojima, Seiko Kuwata, Clara Kurishima, Yoichi Iwamoto, Hirofumi ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Pediatric Cardiology and Adult Congenital Heart Disease
    2014 Volume 78 Issue 10 Pages 2507-2511
    Published: September 25, 2014
    Released: September 25, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: August 11, 2014
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    Background:This study tested the hypothesis that aortic stiffness is increased more in patients with single ventricular (SiV) circulation and dilated aorta than in those without aortic dilatation, and that aortic stiffness is an independent determinant of aortic dilatation in this type of patient.Methods and Results:Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic size were measured during catheterization in 56 consecutive patients with SiV circulation (aortic dilatation, n=31 [observed/expected aortic root diameter >1.5]; without aortic dilatation, n=25). PWV was found to be significantly higher in the dilatation group than in the non-dilatation group (483.6±10.3 vs. 394.0±8.9 cm/s, P<0.001) after controlling for age and aortic pressure, factors known to influence PWV (P<0.001, analysis of covariance). There was a strong positive correlation between aortic root diameter and PWV (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis adding aortic flow (index of aortic volume load) to independent variables in 25 pre-Glenn patients with directly calculated aortic flow volume showed that PWV was an independent determinant of aortic dilatation (P<0.001).Conclusions:In patients with SiV circulation and dilated aorta, aortic stiffness is increased and is an independent determinant of aortic dilatation. To improve prognosis of Fontan circulation, further studies on whether aortic stiffness modulation reduces the progression of aortic dilatation and resultant aortic regurgitation are warranted. (Circ J 2014; 78: 2507–2511)
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