Circulation Journal
Online ISSN : 1347-4820
Print ISSN : 1346-9843
ISSN-L : 1346-9843
Volume 85 , Issue 4
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
Message From the Editor-in-Chief
Focus on issue: Vascular Disease
Original Articles
Vascular Disease
  • Nobuhiro Tanabe, Hiraku Kumamaru, Yuichi Tamura, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, N ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Vascular Disease
    2021 Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 333-342
    Published: March 25, 2021
    Released: March 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 02, 2021
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    Supplementary material

    Background:There is limited evidence for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapy in patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with respiratory disease (R-PH). Therefore, we conducted a multicenter prospective study of patients with R-PH to examine real-world characteristics of responders by evaluating demographics, treatment backgrounds, and prognosis.

    Methods and Results:Among the 281 patients with R-PH included in this study, there was a treatment-naïve cohort of 183 patients with normal pulmonary arterial wedge pressure and 1 of 4 major diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, interstitial pneumonia [IP], IP with connective tissue disease, or combined pulmonary fibrosis with emphysema); 43% of patients had mild ventilatory impairment (MVI), whereas 52% had a severe form of PH. 68% received PAH-targeted therapies (mainly phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors). Among patients with MVI, those treated initially (i.e., within 2 months of the first right heart catheterization) had better survival than patients not treated initially (3-year survival 70.6% vs. 34.2%; P=0.01); there was no significant difference in survival in the group with severe ventilatory impairment (49.6% vs. 32.1%; P=0.38). Responders to PAH-targeted therapy were more prevalent in the group with MVI.

    Conclusions:This first Japanese registry of R-PH showed that a high proportion of patients with MVI (PAH phenotype) had better survival if they received initial treatment with PAH-targeted therapies. Responders were predominant in the group with MVI.

  • Fumio Sakamaki, Koichiro Asano
    Type: EDITORIAL
    2021 Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 343-344
    Published: March 25, 2021
    Released: March 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 09, 2021
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  • Shunichiro Fujioka, Tadashi Kitamura, Toshiaki Mishima, Riko Nakajima, ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Vascular Disease
    2021 Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 345-350
    Published: March 25, 2021
    Released: March 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 16, 2021
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    Background:When an internal iliac artery (IIA) has to be embolized during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), buttock claudication sometimes poses problems. However, there is no established method to evaluate intraoperative blood flow to the gluteal muscles.

    Methods and Results:Gluteal regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) was monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during surgery, and changes in rSO2were compared with treatment results. Twenty-seven patients who underwent EVAR and IIA embolization at our institution between April 2019 and May 2020 were included in this study. The association between intraoperative changes in rSO2and postoperative incidence of buttock claudication was analyzed. Furthermore, the presence or absence of communication between the superior and inferior gluteal arteries and the intraoperative changes in rSO2were compared to ascertain whether rSO2reflects blood flow change. Postoperative buttock claudication occurred in 4 of 19 patients (21%) with unilateral occlusion of IIA and in 4 of 8 patients (50%) with bilateral occlusion of IIAs. rSO2was found to decrease significantly further in patients with buttock claudication than in patients without buttock claudication (−15±12% vs. −4±16%, P<0.05). In addition, rSO2was predominantly lower in patients without the communication between the superior and inferior gluteal arteries than in those with the communication.

    Conclusions:Gluteal rSO2is useful as an indicator of intraoperative gluteal blood flow.

  • Toshifumi Kudo
    Type: EDITORIAL
    2021 Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 351-352
    Published: March 25, 2021
    Released: March 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 27, 2021
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  • Hirotaka Muramoto, Akihiro Niwa, Yasuhiro Satoh, Takayuki Onishi, Issh ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Vascular Disease
    2021 Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 353-360
    Published: March 25, 2021
    Released: March 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 07, 2021
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    Background:Thrombolytic therapy is standard treatment in acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) with hemodynamic instability. Although right heart thrombi (RHT) appear to increase mortality in acute PTE, large-scale studies of acute PTE with RHT are scarce.

    Methods and Results:Patient data (from August 2005 to May 2014) obtained from post-marketing surveillance of thrombolytic therapy using a tissue-type plasminogen activator were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 2,698 confirmed cases of acute PTE who underwent echocardiographic assessment, 166 (6.2%) were diagnosed with RHT. PTE patients with RHT, compared with those without RHT, had higher rates of mortality (20.2% vs. 10.4%, P<0.001), hemodynamic instability (53.0% vs. 37.7%, P<0.001), and PTE recurrence (6.6% vs. 2.3%, P=0.003). When considering PTE-related hemodynamic severity (cardiopulmonary arrest/collapse, massive, submassive, and non-massive), mortality was significantly higher in patients with RHT in the massive (19.8% vs. 7.7%, P=0.002) and submassive (8.0% vs. 2.8%, P=0.018) groups, whereas no significant differences was found between those with and without RHT in the cardiopulmonary arrest/collapse (51.7% vs. 52.1%, P=0.960) and non-massive (1.6% vs. 0%, P=0.596) groups.

    Conclusions:PTE patients with RHT had higher mortality, severity, and PTE recurrence rates. RHT was particularly associated with worse outcomes in patients with massive or submassive PTE.

  • Hidemitsu Miyatake, Takahisa Tabata, Yasuyuki Tsujita, Kazunori Fujino ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Vascular Disease
    2021 Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 361-368
    Published: March 25, 2021
    Released: March 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: February 13, 2021
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    Supplementary material

    Background:Recently, dynamic chest radiography (DCR) was developed to evaluate pulmonary function using a flat-panel detector (FPD), which can evaluate blood flow in the pulmonary artery without injection of contrast agents. This study investigated the ability of a FPD to measure physiological changes in blood flow and to detect pulmonary embolism (PE) in monkeys.

    Methods and Results:DCR was performed in 5 monkeys using a FPD. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed in both lung fields of the image, and maximum changes in pixel value (∆pixel value) in the ROI were measured during 1 electrocardiogram cardiac cycle. Next, a PE model was induced using a Swan-Ganz catheter and additional images were taken. The ∆pixel value of the lungs in normal and PE models were compared in both supine and standing positions. The lung ∆pixel value followed the same cycle as the monkey electrocardiogram. ∆pixel values in the upper lung field decreased in the standing as compared to the supine position. In the PE model, the ∆pixel value decreased in the area of pulmonary blood flow occlusion and increased in the contralateral lung as compared to the normal model (normal model 1.287±0.385, PE model occluded side 0.428±0.128, PE model non-occluded side 1.900±0.431).

    Conclusions:A FPD could detect postural changes in pulmonary blood flow and its reduction caused by pulmonary artery occlusion in a monkey model.

  • Tatsuhiko Sato, Norihiko Yoshimura, Yosuke Horii, Motohiko Yamazaki, K ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Vascular Disease
    2021 Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 369-376
    Published: March 25, 2021
    Released: March 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: January 13, 2021
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    Background:Low tube voltage computed tomography venography (CTV) can be expected to increase imaging contrast and decrease radiation exposure by using iterative reconstruction (IR). This study evaluated the diagnostic ability of low tube voltage CTV with IR for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), compared to ultrasonography (US).

    Methods and Results:Two experienced radiologists retrospectively reevaluated the CTV data of 55 of 318 consecutive patients suspected of having DVT or pulmonary embolism between December 2015 and April 2017. The 55 patients had undergone both low tube voltage CTV and US (within 1 day before or after CTV). The lower extremity veins were divided into 10 segments. The DVT forms were categorized into 3 types: complete, concentric, and eccentric. We analyzed the 534 overall segments (16 segments excluded in US) measured using both CTV and US. The sensitivity-specificity was overall 73.3–90.0%, for femoropopliteal, it was 90.0–93.2%, and for the calf, it was 71.1–87.2%. The diagnostic accuracy between the ‘eccentric only’ and ‘others’ groups focusing on DVT forms was compared, and significant differences were revealed, especially in the muscular vein.

    Conclusions:The DVT diagnostic ability above the knee was comparable between low tube voltage CTV with IR and conventional CTV, and the radiation dose was reduced. It was suggested that eccentric DVT measured by CTV tend to be a false-positive, especially in the calf muscular vein.

  • Hitoshi Anzai, Satoru Takaesu, Tomoyuki Yaguchi, Takayuki Shimizu, Tat ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Vascular Disease
    2021 Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 377-384
    Published: March 25, 2021
    Released: March 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: March 03, 2021
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    Background:It is recommended to remove retrievable inferior vena cava filters (r-IVCFs) when they are no longer needed because their presence may give rise to serious complications related to prolonged placement of the filter. An advanced filter retrieval technique may help improve the retrieval rate.

    Methods and Results:107 consecutive patients (mean age; 61±18 years, male 53%) in whom r-IVCF retrieval was attempted were prospectively enrolled between April 2012 and December 2018. The frequently used advanced techniques were sling technique and biopsy forceps dissection technique. Retrieval success was 75% with standard retrieval technique alone; however, the overall retrieval success rate improved to 98% with advanced techniques. We observed few serious complications related to the retrieval procedure. Logistic multivariate analysis identified prolonged indwelling time (P=0.0011) and embedded hook in the caval wall (P=0.0114) as independent predictors, and the cutoff value for the indwelling time for requirement of advanced technique was 80 days.

    Conclusions:Advanced retrieval techniques helped improve the retrieval rate without serious complications. We may need to consider the referral of patients to centers with expertise in advanced retrieval techniques when the indwelling time is >80 days, and pre-retrieval CT image shows a hook embedded in the vessel wall.

  • Jiaqi Li, Hironori Imano, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Renzhe Cui, Isao Muraki, ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Vascular Disease
    2021 Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 385-392
    Published: March 25, 2021
    Released: March 25, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: November 13, 2020
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    Supplementary material

    Background:Few studies have investigated the association between serum albumin levels and the risk of stroke subtypes among the general Japanese population.

    Methods and Results:In this study, 5,071 men and 7,969 women aged 40–74 years, initially free from stroke, coronary artery disease, and kidney and hepatic failure, and residing in 4 Japanese communities completed a baseline risk factor survey between 1985 and 1994. During the 24-year follow-up, 528 men and 553 women experienced stroke. In the entire study cohort, multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of serum albumin were 1.45 (1.18–1.77), 1.52 (1.17–1.97), and 1.57 (1.04–2.37), respectively. In men, multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for total stroke, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage in the lowest vs. highest serum albumin quartile were 1.44 (1.07–1.92), 1.48 (1.03–2.11) and 1.71 (0.92–3.18), respectively, whereas in women they were 1.50 (1.13–1.99), 1.63 (1.11–2.39), and 1.56 (0.89–2.74), respectively. Similar inverse associations were observed for each of the ischemic stroke subtypes, but not for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Conclusions:Low serum albumin levels were associated with an increased risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, ischemic stroke subtypes, and intracerebral hemorrhage.

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