In the United States and Europe, percutaneous edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve with the MitraClip device for patients with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation who are at prohibitive surgical risk has been well-established. Recent randomized controlled trials have also demonstrated significant clinical benefits with the use of the device in selected patients with functional mitral regurgitation. Thus far, >80,000 patients in more than 50 countries have undergone the MitraClip procedure. Despite the exponential growth worldwide, the rate of MitraClip adoption in Asia has been more gradual. In addition, very few publications describe the use of MitraClip in Asian populations. This review aims to describe the Asian experience with the MitraClip device and the challenges faced.
Background:Twitter has become increasingly popular at annual medical congresses as a platform to communicate to attendees. In contrast, Twitter is not as frequently used in Japan as compared with other countries. Herein, we reviewed the literature and discuss the potential role and risks of “tweet the meeting” in Japan.
Methods and Results:We performed a literature review to consider the recent trend of tweeting the meeting, including benefits and how to tweet, as well as potential risks. Upon officially deciding to tweet the meeting, a number of societies and professional organizations developed strategies to enhance the attendees’ experience using multiple modalities and guides. Although there are several risks, we provide a concise guide to tweeting the meeting for the Japanese audience, which could be useful for understanding what should be done before and during a conference.
Conclusions:The use of Twitter at medical congresses has many possibilities, and there are numerous potentials in many areas. We should discuss this in the light of the benefits for congress attendees in Japan.
Background:Three sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin, successfully reduced hospitalization for heart failure (HF) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear, however, whether the efficacy of the 3 SGLT2i for HF in T2DM patients is similar.
Methods and Results:Eighty-one T2DM patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF were enrolled. After treatment for HF, one of the 3 SGLT2i was non-randomly used, and clinical parameters for HF and T2DM were followed for 7 days. The attending physician was allowed to adjust the dose of furosemide. No differences were observed between the 3 groups in the increase of glycosuria, or in the decreases of body weight and blood pressure 7 days after SGLT2i (interaction P>0.05). Urine volume was similarly increased on day 1, and returned to the baseline on day 7 in each group. Decrease in B-type natriuretic peptide and increase in plasma renin activity were significant in each group. Plasma aldosterone concentration, however, was significantly increased in the empagliflozin and canagliflozin groups (P<0.01, respectively), but not in the dapagliflozin group. Additionally, plasma noradrenaline was significantly increased in the empagliflozin group (P<0.01), but not in the canagliflozin and dapagliflozin groups.
Conclusions:The neurohumoral responses to the 3 SGLT2i are different under similar volume correction in HF patients with T2DM.
Background:Respiratory stability index (RSI), a semi-quantitative measure of respiratory instability, was found to reflect congestive and other clinical status of acutely decompensated heart failure in the PROST study. Given that the association between RSI and another important factors affecting respiration, such as peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and the influence of oxygen inhalation on this association were undetermined, and that the association between common sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) parameters and RSI was unknown, we performed a subanalysis using PROST data.
Methods and Results:Correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between RSI, SpO2, and other SDB parameters (3% oxygen desaturation index [3%ODI], respiratory disturbance index [RDI]) using Spearman’s rank correlation. RSI and overnight mean SpO2were not significantly correlated either after admission (n=38) or before discharge (n=36; r=0.27, P=0.10 and r=0.05, P=0.76, respectively). This correlation was also not affected by presence or absence of oxygen inhalation. 3%ODI, RDI and RSI were significantly and inversely correlated both after admission and before discharge.
Conclusions:RSI and blood oxygen level were not significantly correlated irrespective of oxygen inhalation, while the SDB parameters were significantly correlated, suggesting that RSI reflects lung congestion independently of blood oxygen concentration and, thus, can be a useful indicator of the non-invasive assessment of lung congestion.
Background:We investigated the clinical usefulness of landiolol for rapid atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and identify the patients eligible for landiolol.
Methods and Results:A total of 101 ADHF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with rapid AF were enrolled. Immediately after admission, an initial dose of landiolol was given (1 μg/kg−1/min−1), and then the dose was increased to decrease heart rate (HR) to <110 beats/min and change HR (∆HR) >20% in ≤24 h. Thirty-seven were monitored using right heart catheterization at 3 points (baseline, 1 μg/kg−1/min−1, and maximum dose). We checked the major adverse events (MAE) during initial hospitalization, which included cardiac death, HF prolongation (required i.v. treatment at 30 days), and worsening renal function. The average maximum dose of landiolol was 3.8±2.3 μg/kg−1/min−1. HR (P<0.0001) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (P=0.0008) decreased safely. MAE occurred in 39 patients. The patients with left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume index <84.0 mL/m2and mean blood pressure (mean BP) >97 mmHg had less frequent MAE (P<0.0001).
Conclusions:Landiolol was effective for safely controlling rapid AF in patients with HFrEF with ADHF, leading to hemodynamic improvement and avoidance of short-term MAE, especially in patients with relatively smaller LV and higher BP.
Background:The vasopressin type-2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan is an essential tool in the management of decompensated heart failure (HF) in the inpatient setting for short-term use with careful monitoring. There is conflicting evidence, however, for its long-term use.
Methods and Results:In this prospective, multi-center, open-labeled, randomized control trial, Assessment of QUAlity of life during long-term treatment of ToLVaptan in refractory HF (AQUA-TLV study), patients with congestive HF refractory to furosemide ≥60 mg/day were randomly assigned to a control group or tolvaptan add-on group and followed for 6 months, after confirmation of baseline urine osmolality ≥350 mOsm/L. Twenty-nine patients (median age, 60 years; 22 male) were enrolled and assigned to a control group (n=16) or a tolvaptan group (n=13). Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score improved significantly in the tolvaptan group (from 58 to 10, P=0.030). In the tolvaptan group, diuretics dose reduced (P=0.001), serum creatinine decreased (P=0.040), and hyponatremia tended to improve (P=0.12). The tolvaptan group had a lower HF readmission rate compared with the control group (0.213 vs. 1.242 events/year, P=0.13).
Conclusions:Six-month tolvaptan therapy improved quality of life and renal function and reduced HF readmissions, when given to the estimated responders (UMIN Clinical Trial Registry Number: UMIN 000009604).
Background:This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted to examine the effects of lactotripeptide supplementation on 7-day mean tele-monitored home blood pressure (BP), and also on the markers of vascular function and renal damage in Japanese subjects with prehypertension.
Methods and Results:A total of 26 subjects with prehypertension were randomly allocated to receive the active product (lactotripeptide tablet) or a placebo tablet for 8 weeks each in a cross-over manner. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein-to-creatine ratio (UFABPCR) and vascular function were measured at the end of each intervention. Home systolic and diastolic BP at the end of the lactotripeptide supplementation period was significantly lower than that at the end of the placebo period (P<0.05). On mixed linear model analysis there was a significant difference in the change in home diastolic BP after intervention between the 2 interventions (P=0.04). UFABPCR was significantly lower at the end of the lactotripeptide intervention period than at the end of the placebo period (P<0.05).
Conclusions:The beneficial effect of lactotripeptide supplementation on 7-day mean tele-monitored home BP was confirmed in Japanese subjects with prehypertension. In addition, this intervention also seemed to have a protective effect against the progression of renal function decline.
Background:Little is known about the acute/long-term outcomes of implantation of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) using a transvenous approach for patients with congenital heart disease (CHD).
Methods and Results:We retrospectively investigated the acute/long-term results and complications associated with transvenous CIED implantation in 140 patients with CHD. We implanted 77 pacemakers, 51 implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), and 12 cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Although we successfully implanted pacemakers and ICD in all patients, we could not place a coronary sinus (CS) lead in 25% of the patients requiring CRT devices due to coronary vein anomalies associated with corrected transposition of the great arteries (cTGA). Overall complication rate, lead failure rate, and incidence of device infection were 16%, 9%, and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall complication rates between the simple (n=22) and complex CHD (n=118) groups (14% vs. 16%). The 10-year lead survival for the ICD leads (77%) was significantly lower than for the pacemaker leads (91%, P=0.0065).
Conclusions:The outcomes of transvenous CIED in patients with CHD seemed acceptable, although there was a relatively high incidence of complications. CS lead placement for cTGA may be hindered by coronary vein anomalies. Lead survival tended to be lower for ICD than for pacemakers in these patients.
Background:Decreased skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) is a major complication of severe chronic heart failure (HF), but no appropriate indices have been developed to predict decreased SMI.
Methods and Results:We enrolled patients with a structural heart disease or history of HF and collected body composition and blood sample data, including serum amino acid concentration. On multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, serum branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentration was a significant predictor of decreased SMI at 1-year follow-up.
Conclusions:Serum BCAA concentration at baseline was significantly associated with decreased SMI at 1-year follow-up.