Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice and induces cardiac dysfunction and stroke. The development of AF requires a trigger and also an electroanatomic substrate capable of both initiating and perpetuating AF. In the past decade, ectopic beats originating from the pulmonary veins (PV) have been identified as a source of paroxysmal AF. Thus, strategies that target the PV, including the PV antrum, are the cornerstone of most AF ablation procedures. Recently, alternative technologies to radiofrequency catheter ablation for paroxysmal AF such as balloon ablation modalities have been developed. The purpose of this review is to discuss cryoballoon ablation for paroxysmal AF.
Background:This aim of this study was to clarify prognosis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and to identify baseline factors associated with mortality.
Methods and Results:We prospectively enrolled 257 consecutive elderly persons with AS who were referred to Keio University Hospital and who underwent assessment of cardiac, physical (walking speed), cognitive, and renal functions, nutritional status, activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL) assessed with the Frenchay activities index (FAI), and comorbidities. The primary outcome was postoperative death. Differences in basic characteristics were compared between a group that survived for a median of 661 days (IQR, 0–1,289 days) after TAVI and a group that did not. Multivariate hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for independent factors selected in Cox proportional hazard models. Thirty-one individuals died during follow-up. Walking speed was significantly faster (0.87±0.25 vs. 0.70±0.24 m/s, P<0.001) and FAI was significantly higher (21.2±8.0 vs. 15.7±8.0, P=0.026) in the survival group compared with those who died. Multivariate HR for mortality according to walking speed was 0.05 (95% CI: 0.028–0.091) in model 1 and 0.04 (95% CI: 0.020–0.081) in model 2, and those for FAI were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92–0.95) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90–0.92), respectively.
Conclusions:Preoperative walking speed and IADL are crucial factors associated with prognosis after TAVI even after adjustment.
Background:Coronary revascularization is important in heart failure (HF) with ischemic etiology. Coronary scoring systems are useful to evaluate coronary artery disease, but said systems for residual stenosis after revascularization are still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to clarify the prognostic impact of residual stenosis using a coronary scoring system, Gensini score, in HF patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods and Results:We analyzed consecutive hospitalized ischemic HF patients (n=199) who underwent PCI. We calculated residual Gensini score after PCI, and divided the patients into 2 groups based on median residual Gensini score. The patients with high scores (≥10, n=101) had a higher prevalence of anemia, lower prevalence of dyslipidemia, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction, compared with those with low scores (<10, n=98). During the median follow-up period of 1,581 days (range, 20–2,896 days), the high-score patients had a higher cardiac mortality than the low-score group (log rank, P=0.001).
Conclusions:In patients with HF after PCI, residual Gensini score was associated with long-term cardiac mortality. Residual Gensini score may be a useful index for risk stratification of HF after PCI.
Background:The length of hospital stay (LOHS) after acute heart failure (AHF) is too long in Japan. The clinical approach to shortening LOHS is an urgent issue in the aging Japanese society.
Methods and Results:Of 1,473 AHF patients screened, 596 patients >75 years old were enrolled. They were divided by LOHS: <28 days (<28-day group, n=316) and ≥28 days (≥28-day group, n=280). Systolic blood pressure and serum hemoglobin were significantly higher and serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine significantly lower in the <28-day group than in the ≥28-day group. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) use was significantly more frequent in the <28-day group than in the ≥28-day group. Furthermore, newly initiated tolvaptan in <12 h was significantly more frequent in the <28-day group than in the ≥28-day group (P=0.004). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, newly initiated tolvaptan in <12 h (OR, 2.574; 95% CI: 1.146–5.780, P=0.022) and NPPV use (OR, 1.817; 95% CI: 1.254–2.634, P=0.002) were independently associated with the <28-day group. The same result was found after propensity score matching for LOHS.
Conclusions:LOHS was prolonged in patients with severe HF but could be shortened by early tolvaptan treatment.
Background:The mechanisms of the increased plasma xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity in outpatients with cardiovascular disease were unclear.
Methods and Results:A total of 372 outpatients were screened, and 301 outpatients with cardiovascular disease were prospectively analyzed. Blood samples were collected from patients who visited a daily cardiovascular outpatient clinic. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) were significantly more likely to be classified into the high-XOR group (≥100 pg/h/mL; 50%) than the low-XOR group (<100 pmol/h/mL; 28.7%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, DM (OR, 2.683; 95% CI: 1.441–4.996) was independently associated with high plasma XOR activity in all cohorts. In the diabetic cardiovascular disease patients (n=100), median body mass index (BMI) in the high-XOR group (28.0 kg/m2; IQR, 25.2–29.4 kg/m2, n=32) was significantly higher than in the low-XOR group (23.6 kg/m2; IQR, 21.2–25.7 kg/m2, n=68), and BMI was independently associated with high plasma XOR activity (OR, 1.340; 95% CI: 1.149–1.540). Plasma hydrogen peroxide was significantly higher in DM patients with high plasma XOR activity and obesity (>22 kg/m2) than in other patients.
Conclusions:DM with obesity is one of the mechanisms of XOR enhancement in cardiovascular disease. The increase of XOR is a possible pathway for the production of reactive oxygen species in obese cardiovascular disease patients with DM.
Background:The aim of this study was to identify factors of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) elevation following transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure.
Methods and Results:The study involved 97 adult patients with sinus rhythm who underwent both transcatheter ASD closure and transthoracic echocardiography. Elevated LVFP was diagnosed during the first month of follow-up according to the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines: that is, ratio of transmitral early filling to the lateral annular diastolic velocity (lateral E/e’) >13 was used to exclude the effect of the device on the atrial septum. Fifteen patients (15.5%) were diagnosed with increased LVFP during the 1-month follow-up period (median lateral E/e’: from 9.2, IQR, 6.6–10.8; to 15.5, IQR, 13.8–17.8; P<0.001). Independent predictors of LVFP elevation were left ventricular (LV) relative wall thickness, lateral E/e›, and peak tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient (TRPG) at baseline (OR, 1.67; 95% CI: 1.04–2.69; OR, 1.52; 95% CI: 1.07–2.15; and OR, 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04–1.25; cut-offs: 0.42, 7.5, and 27.0 mmHg, respectively). Median lateral E/e› returned to baseline in most patients with LVFP elevation during 6 months of subsequent follow-up (1-month–6-month follow-up: 15.5, IQR, 13.8–17.8; 11.1, IQR, 8.8–14.8, respectively; P=0.001).
Conclusions:The increase in Doppler-estimated LVFP following transcatheter ASD closure may be related to LV hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and peak TRPG in elderly patients.
Background:Critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients have high risk for major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the risk factors of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular death in CLI patients with concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods and Results:The association between baseline characteristics and cerebrovascular or cardiovascular death ≤2 years after revascularization for CLI was investigated in 137 CLI patients who previously underwent successful revascularization for CAD before treatment for CLI. Twenty-three patients (17%) died. Geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) in the deceased group (DG) was significantly lower than in the surviving group (SG). On Cox proportional hazard multivariate analysis, hemodialysis (HD) and malnutrition (defined as GNRI <92) were significantly associated with cerebrovascular or cardiovascular death. Also, on Kaplan-Meier analysis, survival rate was significantly lower in CLI patients with either malnutrition or HD compared with patients without either malnutrition or HD, respectively. Furthermore, clopidogrel was less used in the DG than in the SG. The use of clopidogrel was associated with cerebrovascular or cardiovascular death. Especially, non-use of clopidogrel in the malnutrition group further increased the correlation with cerebrovascular or cardiovascular death.
Conclusions:Malnutrition is a crucial risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular death in CLI patients with CAD. Nutritional status intervention and use of clopidogrel may be an important strategy for CLI.
Background:The effects of aggressive lipid-lowering therapy according to the number of diseased coronary arteries in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are still controversial. This study investigated the efficacy of this therapy in ACS patients with multivessel disease (MVD) and single-vessel disease (SVD).
Methods and Results:The subjects were derived from the HIJ-PROPER study, in which ACS patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to receive either pitavastatin+ezetimibe (targeting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] <70 mg/dL) or pitavastatin monotherapy (targeting LDL-C <90 mg/dL). In this study, treatment efficacy was compared between patients with MVD and SVD. The primary endpoint was a composite of major advanced cardiovascular events (MACE; all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization). We identified 1,702 eligible patients (MVD, n=869; SVD, n=833; mean age, 65.6 years; male, 75.6%; acute revascularization, 96.2%). MACE incidence was significantly higher in the MVD group than in the SVD group (43.7% vs. 25.9%, HR, 1.95; 95% CI: 1.65–2.31, P<0.001). In the SVD group, pitavastatin+ezetimibe had significantly fewer MACE than pitavastatin monotherapy (34.6% vs. 47.4%, HR, 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55–0.94, P=0.02).
Conclusions:The benefits of aggressive lipid-lowering therapy, with the addition of ezetimibe to statins, were enhanced in ACS patients with SVD, but not with MVD, in the early invasive strategy era.