Circulation Reports
Online ISSN : 2434-0790
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Original Articles
Cardiac Rehabilitation
  • Keisuke Kida, Miho Nishitani-Yokoyama, Shogo Oishi, Yuji Kono, Kentaro ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Cardiac Rehabilitation
    2021 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 311-315
    Published: June 10, 2021
    Released: June 10, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 27, 2021
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    Supplementary material

    Background:Since the reporting of a cluster outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in sports gyms, the Japanese Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) shared a common understanding of the importance of preventing patients and healthcare providers from contracting COVID-19. This questionnaire survey aimed to clarify the status of CR in Japan during the COVID-19 outbreak.

    Methods and Results:An online questionnaire survey was conducted in 37 Japanese CR training facilities after the national declaration of a state of emergency in 7 prefectures. Among these facilities, 70% suspended group ambulatory CR and 43% suspended cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). In contrast, all facilities maintained individual inpatient CR. Of the 37 facilities, 95% required CR staff to wear a surgical mask during CR. In contrast, 50% of facilities did not require patients to wear a surgical mask during CR. Cardiac telerehabilitation was only conducted by a limited number of facilities (8%), because this method was still under development. In our survey, 30% of the facilities not providing cardiac telerehabilitation had specific plans for its future use.

    Conclusions:Our data demonstrate that ambulatory CR and CPX were suspended to avoid the spread of COVID-19. In the future, we need to consider CR resumption and develop new technologies for cardiovascular patients, including cardiac telerehabilitation.

Cardiovascular Intervention
  • Takuya Tsujimura, Takayuki Ishihara, Osamu Iida, Yosuke Hata, Taku Toy ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Cardiovascular Intervention
    2021 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 316-323
    Published: June 10, 2021
    Released: June 10, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 29, 2021
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    Background:The OrsiroTMultrathin-strut, biodegradable-polymer, sirolimus-eluting stent (O-SES) has specific characteristics regarding its components and has demonstrated comparable clinical outcomes compared with durable-polymer, drug-eluting stents (DES). However, arterial repair following deployment of the O-SES has not been elucidated to date.

    Methods and Results:Using data from the Kansai Rosai Hospital database between November 2010 and September 2020, we analyzed coronary angioscopy (CAS) findings a mean (±SD) of 10±2 months after implantation of an O-SES, a durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent (XienceTM; X-EES), or a biodegradable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent (SynergyTM; S-EES). Neointimal coverage (NIC), yellow color intensity of the stented segment, and the incidence of thrombus adhesion were compared between the O-SES (66 stents from 42 patients), X-EES (119 stents from 87 patients), and S-EES (132 stents from 88 patients). NIC was significantly thinner for the O-SES than S-EES (P<0.001), but was similar between the O-SES and X-EES (P=0.25). Yellow color intensity was significantly greater for the O-SES than X-EES (P<0.001), but similar between the O-SES and S-EES (P=0.51). The incidence of thrombus adhesions was similar in all 3 groups.

    Conclusions:O-SES and X-EES resulted in similar inhibition of NIC and both resulted in a thinner NIC than with S-EES. In addition, O-SES exhibited a similar degree of thrombus adhesion as the other DES, suggesting similar thrombogenicity.

Heart Failure
  • Hajime Kataoka
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Heart Failure
    2021 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 324-332
    Published: June 10, 2021
    Released: June 10, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 18, 2021
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    Background:The mechanism underlying serum creatinine (SCr) fluctuations in heart failure (HF) patients remains unclear. This study examined mediators of SCr fluctuations under diuretic treatment in HF patients.

    Methods and Results:Data from 26 HF patients were analyzed. Clinical tests included measurement of peripheral blood, blood urea nitrogen, SCr, serum and urinary electrolytes, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and plasma neurohormones. Among the 26 patients recovering from worsening HF, changes in SCr were negatively correlated with changes in serum Cl, and positively correlated with changes in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP). According to the median change in SCr, patients were divided into high (range 0.16–0.79 mg/dL; n=13) and low (range −0.35 to 0.14 mg/dL; n=13) change groups. Plasma AVP concentrations after treatment decreased in the low SCr change group and increased in the high SCr change group (−1.28±2.8 vs. 2.14±4.4 pg/mL, respectively; P=0.027). In both groups, there was no change in plasma volume, plasma BNP and norepinephrine concentrations decreased, and plasma renin activity increased after treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a tendency towards an independent association between an increase in SCr and an increase or no change in the plasma AVP after decongestion (odds ratio 4.44; 95% confidence interval 0.81–24.3; P=0.086).

    Conclusions:Plasma AVP appears to be a physiologically important mediator of SCr fluctuations under decongestion treatment in HF patients.

Hypertension and Circulatory Control
  • Akira Oshima, Teruhiko Imamura, Nikhil Narang, Koichiro Kinugawa
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Hypertension and Circulatory Control
    2021 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 333-337
    Published: June 10, 2021
    Released: June 10, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 12, 2021
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    Background:The effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, including the newly introduced esaxerenone, on renal function remain uncertain.

    Methods and Results:This retrospective study was performed on patients who received esaxerenone for resistant hypertension between November 2019 and June 2020. Trends in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were compared between the 6-month period before esaxerenone treatment (pre-treatment period) and the 6-month treatment period on esaxerenone. Twenty-six patients (15 men), with a median age of 70 years (interquartile range [IQR] 51–73 years) and a median systolic blood pressure of 146 mmHg (IQR 139–156 mmHg), were included in the study and completed 6 months of esaxerenone therapy without any adverse events. eGFR decreased significantly during the pre-treatment period (from 66.6 to 59.5 mL/min/1.73 m2; P=0.003), whereas eGFR was unchanged during the treatment period (from 59.5 to 61.8 mL/min/1.73 m2; P=0.15). The median change in eGFR differed significantly between the treatment and pre-treatment periods (3.8 [IQR −4.2, 6.8] vs. −6.1 [IQR −11.1, 1.8] mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively; P=0.008).

    Conclusions:Esaxerenone may have renoprotective effects when administered to treat hypertension. Further studies are needed to understand which patient populations may see greater renoprotective benefits with esaxerenone.

Myocardial Disease
  • Kenta Sugiura, Hiroki Kozuki, Hiroaki Ueba, Toru Kubo, Yuri Ochi, Yuic ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Myocardial Disease
    2021 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 338-344
    Published: June 10, 2021
    Released: June 10, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 27, 2021
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    Background:Wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTRwt-CA) is a life-threatening progressive disease. Recent studies have shown that the detection of transthyretin (TTR) amyloid in tenosynovial tissue may play an important role in the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of TTR amyloid deposits in surgical tissue of patients undergoing carpal tunnel surgery and to clarify the clinical significance of concomitant cardiac examination with 99 mTc-labeled pyrophosphate (99 mTc-PYP) scintigraphy in those patients with TTR deposition.

    Methods and Results:We evaluated 79 consecutive patients undergoing carpal tunnel release surgery and biopsy of tenosynovial tissue. The mean (±SD) age of the patients at surgery was 71.6±12.5 years (range 30–95 years); 32 patients (41%) were male. TTR amyloid deposition in tenosynovial tissue was observed in 27 patients (34%). Sixteen of those 27 patients underwent 99 mTc-PYP scintigraphy. Of those 16 patients, 3 (19%) had Grade 2 uptake on 99 mTc-PYP scintigraphy. None of the 3 patients with a diagnosis of ATTRwt-CA had apparent cardiac symptoms and left ventricular wall thickness >13 mm.

    Conclusions:Concomitant cardiac examination with 99 mTc-PYP scintigraphy in patients who had TTR amyloid deposition in tenosynovial tissue resulted in the identification of 19% of patients with a diagnosis of ATTRwt-CA. This diagnostic approach seems to be useful for the early diagnosis of the disease.

Valvular Heart Disease
  • Yu Kawada, Shuichi Kitada, Kenta Hachiya, Marina Kato, Kosuke Nakasuka ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Valvular Heart Disease
    2021 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 345-353
    Published: June 10, 2021
    Released: June 10, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 26, 2021
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    Background:Risk stratification of normal-flow, low-gradient (NFLG) severe aortic stenosis (SAS) with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) remains unclear.

    Methods and Results:Of 289 consecutive patients diagnosed with SAS by aortic valve area <1.0 cm2, 66 with NFLG-SAS (stroke volume index >35 mL/m2, mean pressure gradient <40 mmHg, LVEF ≥50%) were enrolled in this study; patients with bicuspid aortic valve, acute coronary syndrome, hemodialysis, or a history of aortic valve replacement (AVR) were excluded. Adverse events (AEs) were defined as cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure, and deteriorating condition requiring AVR. Factors associated with AEs were investigated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Over a median of 675 days of follow-up, 25 AEs were recorded: 4 cardiovascular deaths, 12 hospitalizations for heart failure, and 9 patients requiring AVR. In addition, there were 14 events of progression to high-gradient SAS. Multivariable analysis showed significant associations between AEs and the presence of symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] 10.276; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.724–28.357; P<0.001), LV hypertrophy (LV mass index >115 and >95 mg/m2for males and females, respectively; HR 3.257; 95% CI 1.172–9.050; P=0.024), and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) velocity (HR 2.761; 95% CI 1.246–6.118; P=0.012).

    Conclusions:The presence of symptoms, LV hypertrophy, and high TR velocity could be reliable prognostic indicators and may require watchful waiting for timely AVR in patients with NFLG-SAS.

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