Chemistry Letters
Online ISSN : 1348-0715
Print ISSN : 0366-7022
ISSN-L : 0366-7022
Volume 46 , Issue 9
Showing 1-45 articles out of 45 articles from the selected issue
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  • Chu Zhang, Liguo Gao, Shuzi Hayase, Tingli Ma
    2017 Volume 46 Issue 9 Pages 1276-1284
    Published: September 05, 2017
    Released: September 05, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Organic–inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) recently achieved a photo-to-electricity conversion efficiency (PCE) of 22.1%. They drew much attention as promising photovoltaic devices. However, the Pb-based PSCs face great challenges for commercial and industrial applications due to the instability and the toxicity of perovskite materials. Herein, we summarize the current development of various types of Pb-free perovskites, such as the Sn-, Bi-, Ge-, Sr-, and Cu-based perovskites and their devices. In addition, we will address some remaining issues and prospects of the Pb-free PSCs.

    Organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cell (PSC) has achieved an energy conversion efficiency of 22.1% due to its facile processing, tunable band gaps, and superior charge-transfer properties. However, several issues such as the instability and toxicity of Pb-based perovskite limit its commercial and industrial applications in photovoltaic (PV) systems. To realize PSCs as the real green next-generation technology for sustainable solar energy conversion, we summarize the current developments of various types for Pb-free perovskite solar cells in this review. We also give the remaining issues for further research of Pb-free PSCs and the future prospects. Fullsize Image
     
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  • Fumiya Nakamura, Takumi Kato, Daisuke Nakauchi, Go Okada, Naoki Kawano ...
    2017 Volume 46 Issue 9 Pages 1383-1385
    Published: September 05, 2017
    Released: September 05, 2017
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    In this letter, we report a new radio-photoluminescence (RPL) material. RPL is a phenomenon that new luminescent centers are generated by ionizing radiations. Sintered Na2CO3 ceramics in a vacuum showed PL band peaking around 430 nm under 340 ± 40 nm excitation in which the intensity increases by X-ray irradiation. This evolution indicates a generation of a luminescent center by irradiation, a clear evidence of RPL. The majority of existing RPL materials are typically doped with luminescent ions; however, the present material was not intentionally doped. The RPL signal was observed as low as 0.1 mGy, which is an equivalent sensitivity of a commercial RPL dosimeter. For these reasons, the Na2CO3 ceramic is a promising candidate for RPL dosimeters.

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  • Kensuke Ogawa, Mitsuo Hara, Shusaku Nagano, Takahiro Seki, Yukikazu Ta ...
    2017 Volume 46 Issue 9 Pages 1386-1389
    Published: September 05, 2017
    Released: September 05, 2017
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    We report a fabrication of a phototunable color filter by combining the Christiansen filter effect and photoisomerization of stilbene. It is known that stilbene isomerizes by irradiation with light, but in that case the light absorption capacity changes only in the ultraviolet region. However, the change in the refractive index due to the isomerization is reflected in the visible light region. A system in which glass beads were dispersed in a solution containing dissolved stilbene as a photochromic dye exhibited a vivid color due to the Christiansen filter effect, in spite of the lack of pigment color. Additionally, we found that the hue of the system can be changed by the isomerization of stilbene upon irradiation with ultraviolet light.

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  • Jun Araki, Toshihiko Arita
    2017 Volume 46 Issue 9 Pages 1438-1441
    Published: September 05, 2017
    Released: September 05, 2017
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    A dispersion of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) was prepared by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of native cotton, washing with water, and subsequent homogenization in organic solvents. Ultrafine dry powders of CNWs were obtained without hornification (i.e., formation of rigid films) by homogenization of the cellulose hydrolysate in solvents with a small dielectric constant, e.g., toluene or cyclohexane, and subsequent air-drying. Despite using no surface modifications or additives, the obtained pure CNW powders indicated outstanding redispersibility in water compared with conventional CNWs dried from water or large-dielectric constant solvents. Homogenization in organic solvents with smaller dielectric constants (toluene and cyclohexane) yielded finer powders with higher redispersion in water than those obtained using larger dielectric constants (dimethylacetamide, acetonitrile, and water). The extent of hornification also depended upon the dielectric constant of the solvent; i.e., using a solvent with a larger dielectric constant resulted in severer hornification.

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