A novel mesoporous intermetallic NiAl nanocompound was successfully prepared at 600 °C in a molten LiCl with an assistance of CaH2. The obtained powder had a fine crystal structure assigned to a single phase intermetallic NiAl. The measured BET surface area was as high as 113.9 m2/g, originating from the mesopores (3.1 nm on average) and the unique crumpled morphology. Calcium species, such as CaH2, Ca(OH)2, CaO and CaCl2, could work as templates in alloying process and they were readily removable by NH4Cl solution rinsing afterwards. As far as we know, this paper is the first report of mesoporous metal aluminide with a defined crystal structure and a high surface area of >100 m2/g.
An efficient synthesis of 7H-benzo[e]naphtho[1,8-bc]silines has been developed by a rhodium-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition of alkynyl(8-alkynyl-1-naphthyl)silanes with internal alkynes. High chemoselectivity can be realized by employing P(2-MeOC6H4)3 as the ligand for rhodium. Preliminary investigation of its asymmetric variant has also been described to create a silicon stereogenic center with relatively high enantioselectivity.
A polystyrene-block-polysilane-block-polystyrene copolymer was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to show a dilated smectic liquid crystal that has been theoretically well simulated for end-tethered rod-like particles. The Si-H end groups of the rigid rod-like helical polysilane synthesized by Wurtz-type condensation, with a narrow molecular weight distribution, were successfully functionalized with the ATRP initiator, followed by ATRP of the styrene monomer to give a coil-rod-coil triblock copolymer with a well-defined structure.
We evaluated the surface characteristics of polystyrene (PS) exposed to active oxygen species (AOS) in comparison with the surface characteristics of commercially available PS irradiated with oxygen plasma. Non-destructive depth direction analysis via angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that PS exposed to AOS had a smaller surface polar group density and more uniform surface characteristics in the depth direction compared with that irradiated with oxygen plasma.
In this paper, MgCNi3 microparticles have been first synthesized via a solid-state route through the reaction of metallic sodium, magnesium chloride, and nickelocene in a stainless steel autoclave at a relatively low temperature of 700 °C. The reaction temperature required for MgCNi3 microparticles preparation in our method is much lower than that used in the reported methods. The as-obtained MgCNi3 microparticles are investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The magnetic measurement shows that the superconducting transition of the as-obtained MgCNi3 microparticles occurs at about 8.0 K.
The silylimination of alkynes with hydrosilanes and n-octyl isocyanide, and the subsequent 1,4-hydrosilylation of the resulting β-silyl-α,β-unsaturated imines, both of which are catalyzed by Rh4(CO)12, led to the production of β-silylmethyl-N-silylenamines. The reaction of aryl-substituted alkynes proceeded when an excess molar amount of hydrosilane relative to the isocyanide was added to the vessel in one portion. In the case of alkyl-substituted alkynes, it was necessary to add the hydrosilanes in portions after the initial formation of the silylimination products, which were produced by the reaction of equimolar amounts of hydrosilanes and n-octyl isocyanide. The enamines that were produced were readily hydrolyzed to afford the corresponding β-silylaldehyde derivatives.
We investigated the distribution of ions around charged membranes at a lipid/water/air interface by using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with a sufficiently large cell size for water. It was shown that the thickness of the electronic double layer is different from the classical Debye length, which is a bit longer than the former. It was also found that the distance between the ions in the solution and the membrane charge changes depending on the difference in ionic charge owing to the water molecules around the ions. Detailed analysis of ion distribution near the lipid/water surface was presented.
In the field of hydride transfer reactions, overcoming the slowness of the transfer is an important challenge. In this study, we investigated the reaction mechanism of the transfer from a (2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine)(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) hydrido complex to a NAD(P)+ model compound, 3-carbamoyl-1-methylpyridinium by means of density functional theory. One of the calculated transition states is in good agreement with our kinetics observations (activation Gibbs energy, activation volume by means of high pressure apparatus, and kinetic isotope effect) about the transition state in the rate-determining step, indicating that the carbamoyl group (especially carbonyl group) in the NAD(P)+ model helps to complete the transfer by modulating the kinetic hydricity on an ad hoc basis.
We introduce multi-chiroptically active organic systems that exhibit circular dichroism, fluorescence and circularly polarized luminescence through chiral molecular orientation of a non-chiral porphyrin moiety. The spectra of these unique systems are distinctly sensitive to external conditions, including an enantiomeric factor.
The hexagonal plate lead iodide (PbI2), with band gap energy of 2.31 eV, was firstly synthesized from mixed sulfide-oxide lead and zinc ore by an in-situ reduction-selective leaching-precipitation approach, and the recovery efficiency of lead reached 92.30%. When the formed PbI2 was used to fabricate a perovskite solar cell (PSC), the power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached 14.98%, equivalent to that of the PSC from specpure PbI2. This work developed a new process for high value-added utilization of the mixed ore.
A graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet with epoxy groups was prepared by exfoliating the graphite oxide. The free standing membrane of the GO nanosheet with epoxy groups was used for water purification, which showed higher water selectivity from NaCl aqueous solution compared with conventional GO membrane with various oxygen functional groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl, and epoxy groups, indicating that the epoxy groups on the GO nanosheet suppress the permeation of ions.
The Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation for pure liquids of various non-spherical molecules is examined using molecular dynamics simulation. The SE relation obeys generally the equation recently proposed for simple liquids such as noble gases. The result shows that effects of molecular shape on self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity are negligible or cancel out in their product and the SE relation does not need concepts of the hydrodynamic particle size or the boundary condition as well as simple liquids.
Utilizing egg white proteins and peptides as functional materials is very attractive, because they are available at low cost. Ovalbumin (OVA) is a major globular protein in egg white. Previously, we focused on the peptide fragment corresponding to the helix A region of OVA (pN1-22, acetyl-GSIGAASMEFCFDVFKELKVHH) and explored its function. Here, we report nanoparticle formation of this OVA-derived peptide and its ability to prevent the aggregation of pathogenic proteins.
Rationally designed topological arrangement of multinuclear transition metal centers is of fundamental importance to create diverse functions applicable to catalysts, electronic, photochemical, and magnetic materials, and molecular devices. We have systematically studied structurally constrained multinuclear metal clusters by utilizing multidentate phosphine ligands. This highlight review summarizes recent progress of our investigations of the synthesis of low-valent metal clusters supported by linear tetradentate phosphine ligands, Ph2PCH2P(Ph)(CH2)nP(Ph)CH2PPh2 (n = 1–4) and Ph2PCH2P(Ph)N(Ph)P(Ph)CH2PPh2, mainly focusing on linear noble metal chains and rings and copper hydride clusters.
Organoselenium chemistry has gained much interest of researchers due to its applicability in synthetic chemistry and catalysis and in biology, particularly after the discovery of selenocysteine amino acid in mammals. Consequently, novel organoseleniums with desired functions and newer synthetic methodologies are being discovered. The construction of carbon-chalcogen in these compounds has been achieved mainly by using transition metal-catalyzed methodology. However, a mild and cost-effective base/oxidant dependent oxidative approach provides an alternative approach to TM-catalyzed methodology. In this highlight review, newer methods mainly relying on the oxidative approach, which is sustainable and does not require pre-functionalized substrates to construct organoseleniums, have been discussed. The organoselenium compounds also serve as an effective catalyst for the transformation of several organic transformations with the aid of hydrogen peroxide/TBHP/halogens or halogenated organoseleniums to activate organoseleniums. Catalytic properties of organoselenium toward the activation of an abundant and greener oxidant such as oxygen is also highlighted.
Diarylethenes were obtained from the corresponding ethenyl sulfones by photocatalyzed desulfonylation using UV or blue LEDs. When perylene and i-Pr2NEt were used as a photocatalyst and a sacrificing reagent, respectively, this desulfonylation proceeded smoothly to afford the desired ethenes with the functional groups such as chloro, alkoxy and heteroaromatic rings remaining untouched. The use of a flow photoreactor enabled this desulfonylation to proceed more rapidly to finish in an hour of residence time.
Magnetic α-Fe2O3/Fe3O4 composite spherical particles were synthesized by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation to α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle powder suspended in pure water and acetone. It was shown that the laser-induced reduction efficiencies in two solvents were comparable. The obtained submicrometer spheres exhibited a ferromagnetic property having a higher coercivity than that of commercial Fe3O4.
We demonstrate isotope selective ionization of I79Br and I81Br isotopologues using field-free alignment induced by a linearly-polarized nanosecond laser pulse with rapid turn off at the maximum. Following the “switched” nanosecond pulse irradiation, a 60-fs laser pulse ionizes one of the isotopologues preferentially. The ion yield ratio I(I81Br+)/I(I79Br+) varies in the range of 0.93–1.06, depending on time delay between the pulses. This is the first demonstration of laser isotope separation of heavy elements using field-free alignment and angular dependent ionization.
We found stereoselective thermal isomerizations at the phosphorous centers of triphosphasumanenes in the solid state. Theoretical calculations and thermal analysis indicate that the isomerization is dominated by the thermodynamic stabilities of crystals depending on the alkoxy groups on their skeleton. The stereoselective isomerization of triphosphasumanene was utilized for the synthesis of a high out-of-plane anisotropic syn-derivative from a less out-of-plane anisotropic anti-derivative.
Limited strategies have been established to prepare core-shell structured Si@SiO2@NC (N-doped carbon). In this study, a novel method is reported to obtain Si@SiO2@NC by treating the surface of Si nanoparticles with oxygen plasma, which exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. Significantly, compared with calcination in air and alkali treatment to obtain the SiO2 surface layer, the synthetic approach reported here is facile and inexpensive, making it more appropriate for mass production of a better performance anode.
While host–guest binding is generally a very fast reaction, guest uptake/release sometimes becomes slow particularly when the host cavity is separated from the outside by relatively narrow openings. If the apertures are opened/closed, the host molecule can be used as a nano-sized container just like a capped container in our daily life. This review focuses on the recent development of the kinetic control of guest uptake/release based on the open/close functions, etc., in addition to fundamental kinetic studies of host–guest binding.