Kumar defined duropathies as disorders with dural defects–related cerebrospinal fluid leaks, particularly of spinal anterior dura mater, Superficial (hemo) siderosis (SS) and multisegemental amyotrophy (MSAM) were included in duropathies. Dural defects of SS had two types; one was incomplete closure of the dura in the spinal and cranial operations, the other was a spontaneous defect in the spinal anterior dura mater. In a majority of SS patients, spontaneous dural defects were detected at the levels of C7/Th1 to Th2/Th3 on axial FIESTA (fast imaging employing steady state acquisition) images. Similarly, dural defects in our 6 cases with MSAM were showed at C7/Th1 to Th2/Th3. Axial FIESTA images were crucial on MR imaging. T2 weighted images demonstrated abnormal hyperintense lesions in both anterior horns at the level of C3 spinal cord in all of 7 patients with MSAM. A dural defect in one case was not found.
This case was a 50-year-old healthy woman. After repeated transient amnesia, she developed tonic-clonic seizures and was admitted to our hospital. The brain MRI showed FLAIR hyperintensities in the left temporal lobe and EEG showed an epileptic discharge starting from the left temporal region. Based on these findings, we diagnosed temporal lobe epilepsy associated with acute limbic encephalitis. While she experienced recurrent transient amnesia, her cognitive functions were preserved except for her memory. These symptoms and EEG findings were consistent with transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). Acute limbic encephalitis that occurred in a healthy middle-aged woman may be antibody-mediated encephalitis, requiring immediate immunotherapies. In this case, GABAB receptor antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid were found positive. This is the first report showing that TEA was caused by GABAB receptor autoimmune encephalitis.
A 63-year-old woman was diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy was initiated. On the second day of IVIg therapy, she became less alert (JCS III-200) and had hyponatremia. Brain MRI showed vasogenic edema in bilateral occipital lobes, which disappeared afterwards. Her clinical course and MRI findings were consistent with those of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). As a result of considering the timing of the onset of GBS and PRES and the degree of hyponatremia and hypertension in some documented patients, the cause of PRES onset in this case is considered to be IVIg therapy itself and IVIg therapy-induced hyponatremia.
Perampanel is an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist that has been marked as an antiepileptic drug for partial-onset and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. There have been some recent reports of perampanel being effective against cortical myoclonus by Lafora disease and Unverricht-Lundborg disease. We herein report a 49-year-old man who presented with myoclonus due to Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS) after cardiopulmonary arrest caused by a severe bronchial asthma attack. Perampanel was very effective against myoclonus induced by LAS even in the chronic state, over 10 years after the remote onset. Perampanel should be considered for the treatment of extremely refractory myoclonus due to LAS.
We report an 86-year-old woman who suffered sudden onset of diplopia while cooking. The patient presented with binocular diplopia, bilateral adduction weakness, convergence disorder and bilateral abduction nystagmus. Although brain MRI on admission detected no abnormality, a repeat MRI examination on the following day demonstrated a focal hyperintense lesion in the tegmentum of the midbrain on diffusion-weighted images. At 36 hours after admission, lower abdominal distension became apparent, and about 1 liter of urine was drained via a urethral catheter. Bladder filling sensation was not present, and we considered that the midbrain lesion had been responsible for the oculomotor disorder and urinary retention. As cerebral infarction was the most likely pathology of this lesion, an antiplatelet agent was administered. At two months after onset, the eye movement disorder was resolved and there was no diplopia. Bladder voiding also resumed at normal intervals. We considered that the bilateral medial longitudinal fasciculi and subgroups of the oculomotor nucleus, which contain motor neurons supplying the medial rectus muscle, had been responsible for the oculomotor disorder. The urinary retention was thought to have been caused by a lesion in the periaqueductal gray, which is one structure controlling micturition. This was a rare case of urinary retention due to a small midbrain infarction.
A 79-year-old woman developed consciousness disturbance, left eye deviation, right hemiplegia and aphasia with hypoxemia. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pulmonary edema. MRI revealed the left internal carotid artery occlusion and entire left middle cerebral artery infarct including insular cortex. We performed mechanical thrombectomy therapy and TICI3 recanalization was obtained. During operation, the respiratory condition deteriorated and the ventilator was started after mechanical thrombectomy therapy. Chest X-ray showed butterfly shadow, which indicated pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema improved on the 2nd day of onset, and disappeared on the 3rd day. There was no heart diseases such as Takotsubo myocardiopathy, acute cardiac failure and cardiomyopathy on echocardiography and electrocardiography. Therefore, we diagnosed her as having neurogenic pulmonary edema due to cerebral infarction including insular cortex. We consider that left insular cortex infarction was a trigger of neurogenic pulmonary edema. If hypoxemia associated with infarction including the insular cortex, neurogenic pulmonary edema should be considered for medical treatment.
A 44-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of sudden weakness and sensory loss in both legs following left scapular pain. He had a history of lower back pain but no vascular risk factors. Neurological examination on admission revealed flaccid paraplegia, a loss of both pinprick and vibratory sensations below the Th6 level, and bladder and rectal disturbances. Tendon reflexes were absent in both lower limbs. Diffusion-weighted imaging performed 5 hours after onset revealed an extensive high-intensity lesion at the Th2–6 spine levels, accompanied by a vague high intensity on T2-weighted images. CT angiography showed no abnormalities of the aorta or the artery of Adamkiewicz. Laboratory test results were normal and there was no evidence of coagulopathy. Autoantibodies, including anti-aquaporin-4 and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies, were negative. The cerebrospinal fluid test was normal. The lesion had expanded to the whole thoracic cord and was markedly swollen on T2-weighted imaging at 5 days after onset. Immunotherapies, including intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and plasma exchange, were ineffective. Although there was no evidence of any source of embolism, we found degenerative calcified changes in the fibrocartilage of the intervertebral discs, with Schmorl’s nodes in the thoracic spines. We clinically diagnosed the patient with spinal cord infarction caused by fibrocartilaginous embolism. He developed deep vein thrombosis and was treated with edoxaban. His neurological symptoms did not improve during 55 days of hospitalization. In a case with sudden-onset myelopathy, fibrocartilaginous embolism should be considered.
A 63-year-old Japanese female in an immunocompetent state developed right Ramsay Hunt syndrome and left shoulder pain, and left upper limb motor paresis with herpes zoster (HZ) duplex in the right auricle and left shoulder regions. With her Ramsay Hunt syndrome, neural deafness, tinnitus and vestibular symptoms were observed, and she lacked facial nerve palsy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings revealed an increase in lymphocytes (21 cells/μl) and protein content (29 mg/dl), and polymerase chain reaction for varicella-zoster virus DNA in CSF was negative. Cervical root MRI using 3D Nerve VIEW (Philips) imaging showed high-intensity lesions on the C5–C8 spinal roots with contrast enhancements. No abnormalities were observed in the median or ulnar motor sensory nerve conduction velocity conduction studies including the F wave. PubMed search revealed no report of a patient with this profile, and to the best of our knowledge HZ duplex with concomitant neurological impairments has not been reported. We compare our present case with several similar cases from the literature.
We present the case of a 37-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) when she was 25 years old. She remained relapse-free after she was started on treatment with oral fingolimod. However, at the age of 35, when she became pregnant, fingolimod was discontinued, and she began to suffer from frequent relapses. Following her delivery, she was started on treatment with dimethyl fumarate. Subsequently, with elevation of the serum levels of hepatobiliary enzymes and peripheral blood eosinophil count, possibly caused by dimethyl fumarate, her treatment was switched back to fingolimod. However, the elevation of the serum hepatobiliary enzyme levels and peripheral blood eosinophil count persisted. A serological test for autoantibodies revealed the diagnosis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Pregnancy or discontinuation of fingolimod could have influenced the immune status of the patient and worsened the state of MS. There are some reports of autoimmune hepatic diseases, including PBC, being caused by disease modifying drug (DMD), like interferon-β or even steroid pulse therapy, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This risk should be borne in mind when treating patients with MS, especially younger women, with DMD.
A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of limb weakness. She was diagnosed to have chronic renal failure due to diabetes mellitus and had suffered from pericardial effusion at 67 years of age. She started taking colchicine 18 months before admission and thereafter gradually developed muscle weakness in her limbs and had become bedridden at the time of admission. The withdrawal of colchicine improved her limb weakness, and therefore we diagnosed her to have colchicine myopathy. Her muscle strength did not completely recover even after six months from cessation of colchicine. It was suggested that renal failure and muscle disuse had prevented the full recovery of her muscles in addition to the long-term use of colchicine. Typical colchicine myopathy improves rapidly, but the long-term use of colchicine is considered to cause muscle weakness. Although the CK level was elevated, the elevated CK and myopathy had been overlooked because the CK baseline was low due to the patient’s small amount of muscle mass. Moreover, the estimated GFR was recorded to be higher than her actual renal function due to her small amount of muscle mass, therefore the risk of colchicine myopathy in this case remained unrecognized.