To determine the desirable clothing pressure from the children trousers, we measured it usual for the infants, children, and students in this study. In addition, we estimated the child or student's compressive sensation from the trousers. 93 infants (5-6 years), 64 children (11-12 years old), and 39 university students (20-23 years old) were employed as subjects in this study. The results were as follows. In the case of infants, an elastic tape was almost always used. The clothing pressures for infants, children, and students at the front of waist were 1.44 kPa, 1.56 kPa, and 0.97 kPa, respectively. Many infants and children are exposed to high levels of pressure around their waists due to the elastic in their trousers. In addition, the child could not discriminate their high compression. Therefore, the apparel maker must devise a way of sewing the elastic tape to make the waistband adjustable for each infant and child.
Thread-tying test was conducted on 374 female college/university students in order to evaluate their skillfulness in the use of fingers and hands. A questionnaire survey was also conducted on their level of participation in daily chores, self-confidence in their household- chore techniques, amount of play experience in childhood, and their past homemaking education and education at home, and was analyzed to evaluate its relationship with the skills or lack of skill in using fingers and hands.
The results were as follows :
1) The mean number of knots achieved in thread-tying test was 16.1. Therefore, skillfulness in fingers/hands can be estimated to be at the same level as in the test conducted in 1997.
2) No clear relationship was detected between skillfulness in fingers/hands and the level of participation in daily chores. However, skillfulness in fingers/hands can create self-confidence through meticulous work such as in sewing, and can lead the students to gain the confidence to tackle with further extensive activities. Therefore, it is clear that encouraging skillfulness in fingers/hands in education is vital.
3) As students with abundant play experience in childhood and household techniques that they had acquired at home tended to have higher skillfulness in fingers/hands, importance of home education should be stressed. However, since some household techniques are difficult to adopt at home these days due to transitions in life styles, homemaking education at school can alternatively give students the opportunity to learn and adopt these techniques, and encourage them to put them to use at home.
In this research, a survey of Japanese women of current social perceptions towards beauty was conducted. Specifically, the survey was related to foundation, makeup and cosmetic surgery. The survey was conducted based on the hypotheses that there is a relationship between perceptions of beauty sought by women and foundation, makeup and cosmetic surgery, and that the relationship differs depending on age.
Surveys were collected from a total of 555 respondents : 155 from students at B Junior College, 208 from students at Y Junior College, and 192 from the middle age group. The average age of the middle age group was 54.3 and that of young age group was 19.6.
From the results of analysis, it was recognized that there is a clear trend, especially for women in the young age group, to apply makeup around their eyes, based on the perception that makeup is to be used for fashion and for covering up blemishes. It was further surmised that there is a correlation between the enhancement of the eyes through the application of makeup and the desire of some women to change the shape of their eyes with cosmetic surgery. It is conceivable that this is a reflection of the perception held by women that large eyes or “double eyelids” are marks of beauty. On the other hand, there were no notable results linking the enhancement of beauty using foundation to the desire to undergo cosmetic surgery on specific body parts which women want to enhance.
A survey and experimental study were performed in young women to examine wearing comfort of modern kimono. The survey consisted of questioners about the part of kimono which elicited pressure or exhaustive sensation in 333 women. Pressure sensation was most frequently noted at the part of obi, while exhaustive sensation in the whole upper part of the body, especially in the shoulder and back. Secondly, clothing pressure of kimono was measured in 9 subjects wearing furisode, komon, hakama or yukata. As a result, the clothing pressure was high at the upper edge of obi, especially in the axially region. A three-way layout ANOVA revealed a significant correlation between the kind of kimono and clothing pressure at measuring points with the risk of 0.01.