The motion of putting on and taking off clothes is performed daily, so clothing that can be changed easily should play an important role in the independence of the elderly. We analyzed the shoulder joint motion of 19 healthy elderly women (aged 70 to 78 years) while taking off two kinds of pullover short-sleeved shirts (T-shirt and tank top), and investigated the features of four methods of taking off shirts. Method 1 (pulling their arms through the sleeves first) required pulling their arms tightly, and method 2 (raising the front hem and lifting off the shirt) was found to be the easiest method for taking off a shirt in subjects with no mobility problems in the shoulder joints. Method 3 (raising the front hem and pulling their arms through) and method 4 (holding the back collar and pulling the shirt forward) did not require subjects to flex the shoulder joints to extreme angles. In addition, forward flexion and abduction of the shoulder joints while taking off T-shirts using method 2 were wider than with tank tops. Our results showed that the angle required of the shoulder joint while taking off shirts differs according to the four methods examined.
The two major issues in dye analysis of textiles made in the initial period of early synthetic dyes are to identify the dyes used, especially to distinguish between natural dyes and synthetic dyes, and to obtain information about the characteristics of these early synthetic dyes for proper conservation. In this study, we focus on base natural and synthetic red dyes. Silk kimono fabrics which could be dated to the late Edo period or Meiji Era were examined. By using multiple comparatively simple analytical methods (visual examination, spectroscopic analysis, extraction test, etc), natural dye identification and synthetic dye class identification were carried out. First, mainly based on the results of the extraction test the 14 items were divided into two categories : eight with natural dye and six with synthetic. Second, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of the extracts were measured to identify the natural dyes used. Safflower and Sappan wood dye were found. Third, dye class identification was carried out by dyeing test on various fibers, and acid dye was detected. Practical information on appropriate care of the kimono fabrics was obtained not only from the results of identification but also by observation during the process of analysis.