The objective of this study was to analyze the dyes used in violet silk kimono fabrics which could be dated as being from the end of Edo period to the Meiji Era. By using multiple, comparatively simple analytical methods (visual examination, spectroscopic analysis, extraction tests, etc), the identification of natural and synthetic dyes was carried out. First, mainly based on the results of extraction tests, 11 fabric samples were divided into two categories : eight with natural and three with synthetic dye. From the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of the extracts the eight natural-dyed samples were found to have been dyed with Gromwell root. In all three synthetic-dyed samples the dye class was found to be basic dye. Basic Violet 14 was detected in one of these samples using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Our proposed analytical procedure was proved to be useful in the identification of natural and synthetic violet dyes used in kimono fabrics as well as the red dyes on which we focused in the previous paper.
To identify the key characteristics in clothing design that can help the elderly dress and undress themselves, a test was carried out using a subject group of 12 men and women between the ages of 69-90 (average age 78.5 yrs). Four people in the group suffered from a variety of physical disabilities including Parkinson’s disease, rheumatism, hemiplegia and stroke (paralysis of the arm). When the sitting subjects put on and took off a variety of upper and lower garments, the amount of body movement was measured.
The following results were ascertained :
1) Loss of balance was a key problem when the subjects dressed and undressed themselves. They suffered additional loss of balance when putting on their socks due to the awkward body movements required to accomplish this task.
2) There was a marked increase in the amount of instability with the handicapped subjects.
3) Apparel preferences of the elderly depend on the state of health and the amount or nature of the disability. Preferences are also determined by the ease with which garments can be put on and taken off.
4) Front opening blouses were found to be the most practical garments for the elderly. Clothing design plays a key role in resolving dressing and undressing problems for the elderly. Upper body garment design should be based around the looseness of the bust line, the distance from the bust line to the arm hole and the cap height at the center of the sleeve.