Previous studies suggest that international students’ self-disclosure and assertiveness to host nationals play significant roles in their cultural adjustment. However, what specific factor helps them disclose themselves and be assertive has not been fully researched. Using culture learning theory, this study hypothesized that ability in the host country’s language (i.e., Japanese) and length of stay in a host country (i.e., Japan) are associated with these two forms of communication. Results indicated that language ability and length of stay were positively associated with levels of self-disclosure. A structural equation model further showed that length of stay was indirectly linked to levels of self-disclosure through Japanese fluency. Surprisingly, international students who stayed for a longer period in Japan with higher levels of Japanese were not more assertive than those who stayed for a shorter period with lower levels of Japanese. This study also investigated differences in the association among those variables between Asian international students and Western international students. These findings suggest that those who try to adjust to a new culture should be aware that what is considered an appropriate communication style varies depending on the host culture.
This research aims to rethink the meanings of the act of narrating discrimination in an anti-military movement. While narrating discrimination has been scrutinised as a teleological performance, it has not been examined as the process of verbalising an experience that is difficult to put into words. Considering this academic situation, it would be necessary to recognise the significance of addressing the issue that people narrate discrimination is likely to be influenced directly by their understanding of the norm of “political correctness” in the movement. Then it will be possible to explore the discussion on mnemonic practices that can open the possibility of reconnecting to others through noticing mishear. Through examining how I had misheard the narrative of a participant of the anti-military movement in Okinawa, whose parents are ex-leprosy patients, this paper tries to shed light on the language order related to narrating discrimination and uncover how noticing that I had misheard the voices of others can transform existing relationships and/or memories.
Education for hearing-impaired children includes an instruction skill referred to as the “Natural Method.” In language instructions, the “Natural Method,” as opposed to drills based on pedagogical instruction, places an emphasis on encouraging a child to use language out of necessity by way of utilizing activities appropriate to the child’s needs. In this research, language instruction was provided to 3-year-old child (boy) who could hear, but whose language acquisition was verified late for his age. Utilizing the “Natural Method” proved more effective than the pedagogy of the instruction method regarding the encouragement of language acquisition. The major issues of dysarthria and delayed language acquisition were improved through approaches using “Speech/Pronunciation,” “Use of Auditory Sense,” “Language Output,” and “Enhanced Vocabulary.” Further, regarding the difficulties the child had experienced with human relationships, in particular, an incapacity to adapt to group activities, the communicative-centered approaches of the Natural Method allowed greater “Emotional Control” to be exhibited; the child was better able to express themselves verbally. This research shows suggests that the “Natural Method” may also be effective strategy for hearing children. Through “Word Communication,” which includes reading others’ emotions and conveying one’s own feelings, infants are enabled not only to acquire a vocabulary, but also to gain confidence in interpersonal expression. This research reaffirms the notion that the building of human relationships is rooted deeply on the ability to communicate.