The Chinese government set forth a series of the rural financial reform, including the establishment of new type financial organizations such as the Rural Loan Co-operatives. Here, we discuss the structure, conduct and performance of changing rural financial market, referring the actual condition of the Guanyun xian, Lianyungang shi, Jiangsu province. Especially we attempt to clarify the economical feature and social significance about the Rural Loan Co-operatives. The major conclusions are as follows. As the associate of financial organizations, the Rural Loan Co- operatives recognized by the local government are fragile, and therefore in order to make them go to the development path, we need more formal local regulations in accordance with the law set by the CBRC.
Here we deal with how we should apply the concept of kyosai established by professor Nagahisa Kasahara in the 1960s to todayʼs kyosai, and present a new concept that defines an essential difference between kyosai and commercial insurance.
Professor Kasahara has understood kyosai as cooperative insurance and made up the concept of a form of modern kyosai(cooperative insurance). We can apply this concept to todayʼs kyosai. Futhermorer, we can define kyosai and commercial insurance as follows. Kyosai is economic facilities making use of mechanisum of insurance as a means of social movement. Commercial insurance is economic facilities makinng use of mechanisum of insurance as a means of profit- making.
This study aims to examine the consciousness of members working at NPO-K, a nonprofit organization, workersʼ collective and long-term care insurance enterprise. Data were taken from the results of a questionnaire survey on attitude toward work life. These data are analyzed by dividing the members into those who joined NPO-K before it implemented a long-term care insurance system and those who joined after. This study clarifies the gap in consciousness between the two groups. By analyzing the consciousness of members who joined after this system was implemented, this study clarifies the new framework of members working in a workersʼ collective.
Recently, distribution through the Direct Sales Store(DSS)channel has spread all over Japan. This study examines the DSS market in Fukuoka as an example. Sales through the DSS channel in Fukuoka have grown rapidly since 2005.
However, the rapid growth and fierce competition among DSS in Fukuoka causes serious problems. In some cases, the traditional identity of locally produced and consumed being seen as threatened by ‘supermarketizationʼ. New models of collaboration among co-operatives are required in order to improve the situation. Based on field research in Fukuoka, this study develops a new model of mutual support among co-operatives in a local network.