This review highlights the rapid evolution of the newly-developed class of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of organosilicon compounds. A myriad of heteroatom-containing silicon moieties (silyl hydrides, siletanes, silanols, silyl ethers, orthosiliconates, di- and polysiloxanes and pyridylsilanes) undergo mild and stereospecific cross-coupling. The diversity of methods for introduction of silicon groups into organic molecules and the range of organic electrophiles that can be used are emphasized.
Direct compression is able to produce tablets at a lower cost than wet granulation and tableting method, due to a fewer items of process validation. In this study, acetaminophen was used as a medicine with various granular diameters to formulate tablets by direct compression, thus evaluating their physical properties. Consequently, direct compression was found effective in formulating tablets with excellent physical properties, with the granular diameter taken into account. It was confirmed that tablets produced by direct compression were similar in physical properties in tablets produced by wet granulation and tableting method. Further, it was suggested that use of a dry-type binder would make it possible to provide a tablet having higher content of the medicine with excellent physical properties.
For the purpose of evaluating optimal fill level of starting materials in a high-shear mixer, discrete element method (DEM) simulation was conducted to visualize kinetic status between particles. The simulation results obtained by changing fill levels were used to determine solid fraction of particles, particle velocity, particle velocity vector, and kinetic energy and discuss the flow pattern. Optimal fill level was obtained from the information on these matters. It was pointed out that understanding the kinetic energy between particles in an agitating vessel was effective in determining the optimal fill level. Granulation experiment was conducted to validate the optimal fill level obtained by the simulation, confirming the good agreement between these two results. It was pointed out that determination of kinetic energy between particles through the simulation was effective in obtaining an index of the kinetic status of particles. Further, it was confirmed that the simulation could provide more information than conventional granulation experiments could provide and also helpful in optimizing the operating conditions.
New sphingolipids, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-hexadecanoylamino-(6E,9E)-heptacosdiene (1), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-hexadecanoylamino-(6E,9E)-heptacosdiene-1-O-glucopyranoside (2), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-hexanoylamino-(4E)-heptadecene (3) have been isolated from Conyza canadensis, along with five known compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid, 3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3β-erythrodiol, isolated for the first time from this species. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR and MS) and two dimensional (2D)-NMR experiments.
In addition to 19-dydroxybaccatin III, 1β-hydroxy-5α-deacetylbaccatin I, taxayuntin G and 13-O-deacetyltaxumairol Z (4), three new taxane diterpenoids, taxumairols X (1), Y (2), Z (3) have been isolated from extracts of the Formosan Taxus mairei (LEMEE & LEVL.) S. Y. HU. Compounds 1—2 belong to the 11(15→1)-abeo-taxane system, having a tetrahydrofuran ring at C-2, C-3, C-4 and C-20. The new compound 3 and 4, which was misidentified previously are derivatives of 11(15→1)-abeo-taxane with an intact oxirane system. The structures of compounds 1—4 were elucidated on the basis of extensive two dimensional (2D)-NMR analysis.
Two new phloroglucinol derivatives, mallotophilippen A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the fruits of Mallotus philippensis. These compounds were identified, using chemical and spectral data, as 1-[5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-isobutyryl-5-methyl-benzyl)-2H-chromen-8-yl]-2-methyl-butan-1-one and 1-[6-(3-Acetyl-2,4,6-trihydroxy-5-methyl-benzyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-8-yl]-2-methyl-butan-1-one, respectively. They inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) gene expression by a murine macrophage-like cell line (RAW 264.7), which was activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant mouse interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Furthermore, they inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells induced by Compound 48/80. These results suggest that the novel phloroglucinol derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects.
The characterizations of the anhydrate (A-form), monohydrate (B1-form), and dihydrate (B2-form) of CS-834 were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), infrared spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer moisture titration. The typical DSC curve of the B2-form showed five endothermic peaks at 35.0, 46.4, 56.2, 99.2, and 190.4°C and an exothermic peak at 123.4°C. In TG-DTA analysis, the three peaks at 35.0, 46.4, and 56.2°C had a total weight loss of 7.3%, corresponding to the release of two water molecules. From morphological observation under thermomicroscopy, the endothermic peak at 99.2°C was attributed to the melting of the dehydrous crystals (B0-form) and the exothermic peak at 123.4°C to the recrystallization to the A-form crystals. The endothermic peak at 190.4°C was due to the melting of the A-form crystals. After incubation for 6.0 h at 35, 50, 60, and 80°C, the powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the B2-form indicated that it was converted into the A-form via the B1-form and B0-form. Thus CS-834 exists in homologous hydrous crystal forms in multiple-phase transformations with the dehydration of two water molecules.
This paper describes the synthesis and the antiplatelet activity of a series of 4,5-disubstituted-6-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinones. Some of these compounds show a dose-dependent activity and were found to be more active than their 5-substituted analogues.
The use of log k derived from reversed phase (RP)-HPLC retention times provides a convenient method for estimating log Poct values (Poct: 1-octanol/water partition coefficient). In order to establish optimal HPLC conditions, the difference between chromatographic (C18 modified column and aqueous methanol eluents) and bulk solvent systems was examined by use of a batch-like equilibration with octane/aqueous methanol. Comparison of values for log PO/M–W (log P for the Octane/MeOH–Water partitioning system) and log k measured for monosubstituted pyrazines at different methanol concentrations, showed closest correlation (r, 0.94) with 50% aqueous methanol; and importantly, under these conditions, log k shows even better correlation (r, 0.99) with log Poct. Effects of residual silanols on HPLC retention with C18 stationary phases were examined. The results show that, in the presence of a small quantity of accessible silanols, the use of 50% aqueous methanol (M50) as eluent yields values of log k directly proportional to log Poct in accord with our earlier proposal that use of log kM50 provides a convenient means for rapid estimation and prediction of log Poct.
1-Benzylwye (8) underwent electrophilic substitution at the 7-position in the presence of phosgene and pyridine in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to afford the 1,4-dihydropyridines (11, 10, and 14) together with the carboxylic acid 6 and its methyl ester 2 after short treatment of the reaction mixture with methanol and then with water. When triethylamine was used instead of pyridine, phosgene reacted with triethylamine rather than 8, producing (E)-3-(diethylamino)propenoyl chloride (17) and diethylcarbamoyl chloride (18).
The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of suppression of the perceived bitterness of quinine by various substances and to examine the mechanism of bitterness suppression. The following compounds were tested for their ability to suppress bitterness: sucrose, a natural sweetener; aspartame, a noncaloric sweetener; sodium chloride (NaCl) as the electrolyte; phosphatidic acid, a commercial bitterness suppression agent; and tannic acid, a component of green tea. These substances were examined in a gustatory sensation test in human volunteers, a binding study, and using an artificial taste sensor. Sucrose, aspartame, and NaCl were effective in suppressing bitterness, although at comparatively high concentrations. An almost 80% inhibition of bitterness (calculated as concentration %) of a 0.1 mM quinine hydrochloride solution required 800 mM of sucrose, 8 mM of aspartame, and 300 mM NaCl. Similar levels of bitterness inhibition by phosphatidic acid and tannic acid (81.7, 61.0%, respectively) were obtained at much lower concentrations (1.0 (w/v)% for phosphatidic acid and 0.05 (w/v)% for tannic acid). The mechanism of the bitterness-depressing effect of phosphatidic acid and tannic acid was investigated in terms of adsorption and masking at the receptor site. With phosphatidic acid, 36.1% of the bitterness-depressing effect was found to be due to adsorption, while 45.6% was due to suppression at the receptor site. In the case of 0.05 (w/v)% tannic acid, the total bitterness-masking effect was 61.0%. The contribution of the adsorption effect was about 27.5% while the residual masking effect at the receptor site was almost 33%. Further addition of tannic acid (0.15 (w/v)%), however, increased the bitterness score of quinine, which probably represents an effect of the astringency of tannic acid itself. Finally, an artificial taste sensor was used to evaluate or predict the bitterness-depressing effect. The sensor output profile was shown to reflect the depressant effect at the receptor site rather well. Therefore, the taste sensor is potentially useful for predicting the effectiveness of bitterness-depressant substances.
This study reports depigmenting potency of 1,3-selenazol-4-one derivatives, which would be based upon the finding of direct inhibition to mushroom tyrosinase. 1,3-Selenazol-4-one derivatives exhibited inhibitory effect on dopa oxidase activity of mushroom tyrosinase. In this study, inhibitory effects of six kinds of 1,3-selenazol-4-one derivatives (A, B, C, D, E and F) on mushroom tyrosinase were investigated. Compounds at a concentration of 500 μM exhibited 33.4—62.1% of inhibition on dopa oxidase activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Their inhibitory effects were higher than that of kojic acid (31.7%), a well known tyrosinase inhibitor. 2-(4-Methylphenyl)-1,3-selenazol-4-one (A) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect among them dose-dependently and in competitive inhibition manner.
The inclusion ability of triacetyl-β-cyclodextrin (TAβCD), a hydrophobic cyclodextrin (CD) derivative was examined, using nicardipine hydrochloride (NC) as model drug. The binary compounds were prepared in a 1 : 1 molar ratio by the kneading and the spray-drying techniques. In order to confirm the complexation between NC and TAβCD in the solid state, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were carried out and the results were compared with the corresponding physical mixture in the same molar ratio. The kneaded product presented only slight modifications on the drug physicochemical and morphological properties, which could mean that no complex formation occurred during this process. In contrast, spray-drying was found to produce inclusion complexes with amorphous nature. In vitro dissolution studies were carried out in simulated gastric (pH 1.2) and intestinal (pH 6.8) fluids, according to the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) basket method. The NC in vitro release from the kneaded and spray-dried products was markedly retarded in both dissolution media. However, this retarding effect was significantly more evident for the spray-dried compound. It was concluded that the formation of real inclusion complexes could only be achieved by the spray-drying method.
Six new triterpenes, saponaceolides E (1), F (2), and G (3), and saponaceoic acids I (4), II (5), and III (6) were isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Tricholoma saponaceum, and their structures were elucidated on the base of extensive NMR experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitor activity against B16 and L929 cells.
A novel C-methylated biflavone, taiwanhomoflavone-B (1), together with known compounds, 7,4′,7″-tri-O-methylamentoflavone, 6-C-methylnaringenin and apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside were isolated from an ethanolic extract of Cephalotaxus wilsoniana. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Taiwanhomoflavone-B is cytotoxic with ED50 values of 3.8 and 3.5 μg/ml, against KB oral epidermoid carcinoma and Hepa-3B hepatoma cells, respectively.
Quinone pigments in the crinoids were investigated. New quinone sulfates 1 and 3 were isolated from Tropiometra afra macrodiscus and Oxycomanthus japonicus, respectively. The structures 1 and 3 were determined to be 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-propylanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid 6-O-sulfate (ptilometric acid 6-O-sulfate) and 2-butanoyl-3,6,8-trihydroxy-1,4-naphtoquinone 6-O-sulfate, respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Ptilometric acid 6-O-sulfate (1) showed an antifeedant activity on fish.
Dennettine, a new 2,6-dimethoxychromone and three known phenanthrene alkaloids (uvariopsine, stephenanthrine and argentinine) in addition to the phenolic and known compound vanillin were isolated from the roots of Dennettia tripetala. Their structures were determined by physical and spectroscopical one dimensional (1D) and 2D-NMR analysis, including heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy.
Three new phenylethanoid glycosides, viz. monnierasides I—III (1—3) along with the known analogue plantainoside B were isolated from the glycosidic fraction of Bacopa monniera. Their structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of two dimensional (2D) NMR spectral analyses.
A new acylated flavonol glycoside was isolated from the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica along with two known flavonol glycosides. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic investigation.
The water mobility and diffusivity in the gel-layer of hydrating low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (LH41) tablets with or without a drug were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and compared with those properties in the gel-layer of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) tablets. For this purpose, a localized image-analysis method was newly developed, and the spin–spin relaxation time (T2) and apparent self-diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water in the gel-layer were visualized in one-dimensional maps. Those maps showed that the extent of gel-layer growth in the tablets was in the order of HPC>HPMC>>LH41, and there was a water mobility gradient across the gel-layers of all three tablet formulations. The T2 and ADC in the outer parts of the gel-layers were close to those of free water. In contrast, these values in the inner parts of the gel-layer decreased progressively; suggesting that the water mobility and diffusivity around the core interface were highly restricted. Furthermore, the correlation between the T2 of 1H proton in the gel-layer of the tablets and the drug release rate from the tablets was observed.
The first synthesis of a labdane diterpenoid, (−)-13-oxo-15,16-dinorlabda-8(17),11E-dien-19-oic acid [(−)-1a], isolated from the stem bark of Thuja standishii (GORD.) CARR., from the major component trans-communic acid (3a) is described.
Two epimeric carotenoids, named dinochromes A (2) and B (3), were isolated from the fresh water red tide Peridinium bipes, as anti-carcinogenic compounds. The stereostructure of dinochrome A and B were characterized to be (3S,5R,6R,3′S,5′R,8′R)- and (3S,5R,6R,3′S,5′R,8′S)-5′,8′-epoxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6,5′,8′-tetrahydro-β,β-carotene-3,5,3′-triol 3-O-acetate, respectively by 1H- and 13C-NMR, and circular dichroism (CD) data. Dinochromes A (2) and B (3) inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated 32P-incorporation into the phosholipids of HeLa cells. Furthermore, dinochrome A was found to inhibit the proliferation of human malignant tumor cells, such as GOTO, OST and HeLa cells.
A systematic series of chemically modified coumarin dimmers has been synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 integrase. We observed that modified coumarin dimmers containing hydrophobic moiety on the linker display potent inhibitory activities.
The complex formation of In3+-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)-porphine (In-TMPyP) with albumin was studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Albumin coordinated to In3+ through the –S− group(s). The photoreaction was investigated using the visible spectral change and In-TMPyP-thiourea complex was used as a model. It was demonstrated that the complex in a weak basic solution (pH 8.5) is excited by light and the excited complex converts oxygen to superoxide anion, which finally cleavages the porphine ring of In-TMPyP.