Oxaliplatin is a third generation platinum based anti-cancer drug used against various human malignancies but displays genotoxic properties against normal cells. Naringenin is a naturally occurring bioflavonoid that possesses anti-oxidant properties and has protective effects against DNA damage. The aim of this study is to examine the protective effects of naringenin on oxaliplatin-induced DNA damage in mice. A total of 50, male BALB/c mice were randomly divided equally into five groups. Oxaliplatin toxicity was induced by a single dose (7 mg/kg b.w.) injection (i.p.) of oxaliplatin. Naringenin was given orally for ten consecutive days at two doses, 20 mg/kg b.w. (dose I) and 40 mg/kg b.w. (dose II), to group I and group II, respectively. On the tenth day of the experiment, animals in groups III, IV, and V were given a single i.p. injection of oxaliplatin (7 mg/kg b.w.). All the animals were sacrificed 24 h after oxaliplatin treatment. The extent of genotoxicity was assessed by multiple genotoxicity assays (8-Hydroxydeoxy-guanosine marker, comet, micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays, oxidative stress-marker Glutathione evaluation) in order to determine diverse kinds of DNA damage. The results indicated that naringenin administration significantly reduced the DNA damage induced by oxaliplatin possibly due to its strong anti-oxidant properties. The results suggest that naringenin is a potential candidate for future development as a chemoprotective agent against chemotherapy associated complications.
A series of m-amido bromophenol derivatives were designed and synthesized. The compounds were found to potently inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. They also exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and multidrug-resistant strains. The compounds did not show inhibitory activity against normal Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moderate cytotoxicities and good metabolic stability were observed for the selected compounds. The results demonstrated meta-amido bromophenols as a new class of antitubercular agents with good potentials.
A series of semicarbazone derivatives bearing phenyl moiety were synthesized and evaluated for the vitro anticancer activities in four human cancer cell lines (HT29, SK-N-SH, MDA-MB-231 and MKN45). Biological evaluation led to the identification of 11q and 11s, which showed excellent anticancer activities against tested cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.32 to 1.57 μM, respectively, while exhibiting weak cytotoxicity on the normal cells (HUVEC). Flow cytometric assay for cell cycle and apoptosis revealed that 11q and 11s caused an arrest in the Sub-G1 cell cycle and inhibited proliferation of cancer cells by inducing apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Further enzymatic assay suggested that 11q and 11s could significantly activated procaspase-3 to caspase-3. Metabolic stability study indicated that 11q and 11s showed moderate stability in vitro in human and rat liver microsomes. In view of promising pharmacological activities of 11q and 11s, which had emerged as the valuable lead for further development in the treatment for cancer.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of stabilizers and processing parameters on the size reduction of alpha-mangostin (AMG) using high-pressure homogenization (HPH). The solubility of AMG in various stabilizers was studied. Selected stabilizers were used to prepare AMG suspensions by HPH under different conditions. After HPH, the particle size of AMG suspensions with stabilizers significantly decreased to microns. Percent size reduction efficiency of all AMG suspensions with each stabilizer increased with the increase in the number of homogenization cycles. Sodium lauryl sulfate and poloxamer188 provided a greater extent of particle size reduction than polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer. AMG suspensions with binary stabilizers at higher pressure were also prepared. The use of high pressure increased percent size reduction efficiency.