Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are often mediated by helical, strand and/or coil secondary structures at the interface regions. We previously showed that non-naturally occurring, stable helical trimers of bicyclic β-amino acids (Abh) with all-trans amide bonds can block the p53-MDM2/MDMX α-helix-helix interaction, which plays a role in regulating p53 function. Here, we conducted docking and molecular dynamics calculations to guide the structural optimization of our reported compounds, focusing on modifications of the C-terminal/N-terminal residues. We confirmed that the modified peptides directly bind to MDM2 by means of thermal shift assay, isothermal titration calorimetry, and ELISA experiments. Biological activity assay in human osteosarcoma cell line SJSA-1, which has wild-type p53 and amplification of the Mdm2 gene, indicated that these peptides are membrane-permeable p53-MDM2/MDMX interaction antagonists that can rescue p53 function in the cells.
Recently, quantitativeNMR (qNMR), especially 1H-qNMR, has been widely used to determine the absolute quantitative value of organic molecules. We previously reported an optimal and reproducible sample preparation method for 1H-qNMR. In the present study, we focused on a 31P-qNMR absolute determination method. An organophosphorus compound, cyclophosphamide hydrate (CP), listed in the Japanese Pharmacopeia 17th edition was selected as the target compound, and the 31P-qNMR and 1H-qNMR results were compared under three conditions with potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) or O-phosphorylethanolamine (PEA) as the reference standard for 31P-qNMR and DSS-d6 as the standard for 1H-qNMR. Condition 1: separate sample containing CP and KH2PO4 for 31P-qNMR or CP and DSS-d6 for 1H-qNMR. Condition 2: mixed sample containing CP, DSS-d6, and KH2PO4. Condition 3: mixed sample containing CP, DSS-d6, and PEA. As conditions 1 and 3 provided good results, validation studies at multiple laboratories were further conducted. The purities of CP determined under condition 1 by 1H-qNMR at 11 laboratories and 31P-qNMR at 10 laboratories were 99.76±0.43% and 99.75±0.53%, respectively, and those determined under condition 3 at five laboratories were 99.66±0.08% and 99.61±0.53%, respectively. These data suggested that the CP purities determined by 31P-qNMR are in good agreement with those determined by the established 1H-qNMR method. Since the 31P-qNMR signals are less complicated than the 1H-qNMR signals, 31P-qNMR would be useful for the absolute quantification of compounds that do not have a simple and separate 1H-qNMR signal, such as a singlet or doublet, although further investigation with other compounds is needed.
Lithium cations were observed to accelerate the hydrolysis of esters with hydroxides (KOH, NaOH, LiOH) in a water/THF two-phase system. Yields in the hydrolysis of substituted benzoates and aliphatic esters using the various hydroxides were compared, and the effects of the addition of lithium salt were examined. Moreover, it was presumed that a certain amount of LiOH was dissolved in THF by the coordination of THF with lithium cation and hydrolyzed esters even in the THF layer, as in the reaction by a phase-transfer catalyst.
Owing to occasional health damages caused by health food products derived from Pueraria mirifica (PM), the Japanese government has designated PM as an “ingredient calling for special attention”. Miroestrol is a specific isoflavone isolated from PM and possesses very strong estrogenic activity enough to induces side effects in small amount. Therefore, routine analyses for miroestrol quantification is recommended to control the safety and quality of PM products. However, miroestrol content in PM is quite low, and commercial reagent for its detection is rarely available. In this study, we developed a quantitative analysis method for miroestrol in PM without using its analytical standard by using the relative molar sensitivity (RMS) of miroestrol to kwakhurin, another PM-specific isoflavone, as a reference standard. The RMS value was obtained by an offline combination of 1H-quantitative NMR spectroscopy and a LC/PDA and miroestrol content was determined by single-reference LC/PDA using RMS. Furthermore, we investigated miroestrol content in commercially available PM crude drugs and products, and the RMS method was compared with the conventional calibration curve method in terms of performance. The rate of concordance of miroestrol contents determined by two method was 89 – 101%. The results revealed that our developed LC/PDA/MS method with RMS using kwakhurin as a reference standard was accurate for routine monitoring of miroestrol content in PM crude drugs and products to control their quality.