For the treatment of pituitary dwarfism (called pituitary short stature in 1987 and renamed as growth hormone deficiency [GHD] in 1993), pituitary-derived human growth hormone (phGH) was approved in 1975, and recombinant hGH (rhGH) was approved in 1988. Adult height in patients with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) improved by 2000. However, this improvement was mainly due to the increase in height SDS at treatment initiation. Although the mean adult height in patients with idiopathic GHD has been reported to be approximately –1.0 SD or higher in Europe and the United States, the mean adult height of patients with idiopathic GHD in Japan has not improved as much as that in Europe and the United States after 2000. The possible reasons were: low therapeutic doses than those in Europe and the United States; changes in background factors, such as reduction in severe GHD; differences in response to GH between Caucasians and Japanese; and, no increase in height at puberty onset because delayed puberty was normalized by GH treatment. In the future, long-acting GH is expected to improve adult height in GHD patients in Japan.
Limited data are available on the effects of enteral sulfonylurea (SU) monotherapy in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) with hyperglycemia. Therefore, we report our experience with enteral SU monotherapy for hyperglycemic ELBWIs. We retrospectively evaluated 11 hyperglycemic ELBWIs (seven male infants, median gestational age = 24.9 wk) who received SU between January 2016 and December 2019. Blood glucose (BG) levels were monitored before and after SU initiation and evaluated for the occurrence of adverse effects. We administered SU at a median of 15 d (interquartile range [IQR]: 12–20 d) after birth, with the median maximum dose of 0.2 mg/kg/d (IQR: 0.125–0.3 mg/kg/d). Hyperglycemia improved in all patients, and the target BG levels were achieved without severe side effects at a median of 6 d (IQR: 4–8.5 d) after initiation of treatment. The incidence of hypoglycemia during SU treatment was observed in 18 events per 1000 patient hours; however, the patients were asymptomatic. Based on these results, enteral SU monotherapy may be considered as an option for hyperglycemic ELBWIs.
Paired box transcription factor 8 (PAX8) is essential for thyroid organogenesis and development. Heterozygous pathogenic variants of PAX8 typically cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH) due to thyroid hypoplasia. Additionally, pathogenic PAX8 variants have been identified in patients with gland in situ (GIS). This study was conducted to analyze the in vitro functional consequences of four PAX8 variants (p.D94N, p.E90del, p.V58I, and p.L186Hfs*22) previously identified in patients with CH and GIS. The transcriptional activity of PAX8 variants on the thyroglobulin (TG) promoter was assessed in a luciferase reporter assay. The levels of transcriptional activity on the TG promoter of p.E90del and p.L186Hfs*22 were significantly reduced, whereas p.D94N and p.V58I showed residual activation. In addition, a dominant negative effect on the wild-type (WT) was not detected in any PAX8 variant using a luciferase reporter assay. Two PAX8 variants (p.E90del and p.L186Hfs*22) may be pathogenic causes of CH with GIS.
Although mainly affected by the blood glucose levels, the level of HbA1c could be influenced by other important factors, such as an iron deficiency, which is commonly found in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, a clinical judgment could not be established, as previous studies still reported conflicting results and lack of data regarding Indonesia. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between the serum iron and HbA1c levels in children with T1DM. This single-center cross-sectional study was conducted from February to October 2020 at Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia. Patients aged 1–18 yr were included in this study. The HbA1c and serum iron levels were evaluated in the blood samples. Spearman and partial correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlations between variables. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Thirty-three subjects were analyzed, with a mean age of 11.24 ± 3.76 yr. Low serum iron and poor glycemic index were found in 54.5% and 69.7% of the subjects, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis revealed a low negative correlation between the serum iron and HbA1c levels (Spearman’s rho = –0.376, P = 0.031). A partial correlation showed a moderate negative correlation (r = –0.473, P = 0.013) after adjusting for confounding variables. This study found a moderate negative correlation between the serum iron and HbA1c level in children and adolescents with T1DM.
PAX8 is a transcription factor that is expressed in the thyroid gland and kidneys. Monoallelic loss-of-function PAX8 variants cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH), and urogenital malformations are infrequent complications seen in less than 10% of PAX8 variant carriers. Herein, we report the case of a 3-yr-old female patient with CH who was diagnosed during newborn screening. She was treated with levothyroxine, and she showed normal growth and development at a minimal dose (0.7 µg/kg/d of levothyroxine at 3 yr of age). At 5 mo of age, she visited an emergency department for fever and was incidentally found to have differently sized kidneys by ultrasonography, which was subsequently diagnosed as unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. Her serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were normal. Next-generation sequencing-based genetic analysis revealed that the patient was heterozygous for a PAX8 frameshift variant (p.Thr320ProfsTer106) and a DUOX2 missense variant (p.Arg885Gln). Our patient is the first truncating PAX8 variant carrier to have a urogenital malformation with CH. Genetic analysis for PAX8 should be considered in patients with CH and urogenital malformations.