In this report, Ulva partita Ichihara, sp. nov. (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) was described from Japanese seashores. This species was characterized by (i) frequent branches in the basal region, but not in the middle to upper region, (ii) being up to 20 cm in height and 5 mm in diameter, and (iii) containing chloroplasts covering the outer cell wall in the middle and upper regions of thalli, but with many chloroplasts leaning to one side of the cells in the basal region. Ulva partita is distinguished from morphologically similar species based on the branching pattern, early development pattern, and gamete size. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear-encoded ITS2 sequence and chloroplast-encoded rbcL sequences also strongly supported the independence of this species.
This study examined for the first time the chromosomal characteristics of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and karyological analysis of the pink anemonefish, Amphiprion perideraion (Bleeker 1955) from the Andaman Sea, Phuket Province, Thailand. Kidney cell samples were taken from five male and five female fish. Mitotic chromosome preparations were conducted using a standard squash technique as well as taken directly from kidney cells. Metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and then air-dried. Conventional and Ag-NOR banding techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the diploid chromosome number of A. perideraion was 2n=48, and the fundamental number (NF) was 94 in both males and females. Karyotpes were present as 2 large metacentric, 18 large submetacentric, 8 large acrocentric, 10 medium metacentric, 6 medium submetacentric, 2 medium acrocentric and 2 medium telocentric chromosomes. No irregularly sized chromosomes related to sex were observed. The results indicated that the short arm of the large acrocentric chromosome pair No. 19 showed clearly observable NORs. The karyotype formula for A. perideraion is as follows: 2n(diploid)48=L2m+L18sm+L8a+M10m+M6sm+M2a+M2t
This study examines for the first time the karyological and chromosomal characteristics of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of the cloudy grouper, Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828) from Phuket and Phang Nga Provinces, Andaman Sea, Thailand (two localities). Kidney cell samples were taken from six fish and mitotic chromosome preparations were prepared directly from kidney cells. Conventional and Ag-NOR banding techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the diploid chromosome number of E. erythrurus was 2n=48 and the fundamental number (NF, number of chromosome arms) was 52. The karyotype comprised 26 large telocentric, 4 medium acrocentric, and 18 medium telocentric chromosomes. The region adjacent to the telomeres of the short arms of acrocentric chromosome pair No. 18 showed clearly observable NORs (telomeric NORs). The karyotype formula was deduced as: 2n(diploid)48=L26t + M4a + M18t
Procavia capensis is considered as a small mammalian animal which belongs to order Hyracoidea, and it is the only species of the order that has been found in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, karyotype analysis of this species has been carried out and the finding summarized as follows. The diploid chromosome number is 54. In the karyotype analysis, the somatic chromosomes were categorized into three groups: 21 pairs of acrocentric, 2 pairs of submetacentric and 3 pairs of metacentric chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are one submetacentric X chromosome and one acrocentric Y chromosome. The lengths of chromosomes varied between 1.6–7.6 µm, and the Y chromosome is the shortest. The FN is 65 in the male and 66 in the female, while the FNa is 62. The karyotype formula of Procavia capensis could be deduced as: (2n=54); L14a+L1sm+M14a+M2sm+S15a+S2sm+S6m
The genus Oxalis belongs to the family Oxalidaceae and includes mostly wild as well as commonly cultivated ornamental plants. To generate basic information on genetic diversity required for the improvement of germplasm, the present study was carried out from the different areas of the Western Himalayas. During the study, eight accessions belonging to two species of the genus Oxalis were cytomorphologically observed. New intraspecific cytotypes in O. corniculata (2n=14) at world level and O. corymbosa (2n=14) at India level were reported. In comparison, these diploid and tetraploid cytotypes for O. corymbosa show significant variations in relation to morphology as well as geographical distribution on the world map. Further, the meiotic course in most of these accessions was observed to be normal except for one accession of O. corniculata marked with meiotic anomalies, directly influencing the pollen fertility.
Numerous naturally occurring mutations are heterozygous, and thus, a contributing source of variation. Their crucial fate rests on the gametic fertility and viability. Translocations have been reported in many plant species; however, no previous report is available in this regard in Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (ajwain). During meiotic analysis, a heterozygote for reciprocal translocation has been isolated from the population through EMS treated set in ajwain var. AA-1. The results of the cytological studies showed the predominance of ring quadrivalents along with seven bivalents. Some extent of univalents and bivalents with multiple chromosomal associations along with rings and chains were also observed at metaphase I. Heterozygous plant showed reduced pollen fertility up to 36.23% due to the predominance of adjacent orientation over alternate. At anaphase I, some pollen mother cells (PMCs) showed normal 9 : 9 separation but simultaneously, abnormal 8 : 10 chromosomal separation was also observed. This study deals with the cytological behavior of heterozygote and its occurrence and consequences in the present crop.
We present a cytological study of species of the genus Chaerophyllum L. (Apiaceae) by analysing five accessions covering three species from the Western Himalayas, India. The species are collected and studied for detailed male meiosis, multiple associations and pollen fertility. All the studied species exist at diploid level (based on x=11), and show a meiotic chromosome count of 2n=22 at diakinesis and metaphase-I, and regular chromosome distributions at anaphases-I/II. C. aromaticum is reported for the first time from India and found to be in conformity with the earlier reports of 2n=22 from outside India. Out of three studied species, two (C. acuminatum and C. aromaticum) showed the presence of multiple chromosomal associations at metaphase-I of meiosis-I. The paper herein discusses for the first time the occurrence of multiple associations in these species. The course of meiosis in all studied species shows impaired meiotic course in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, laggards and chromatin bridges. Abnormal microsporogenesis results in heterogeneous-sized pollen grains and reduced pollen fertility.
Interspecific F1 hybrids were synthesized between Brassica tournefortii (2n=20, TT) and B. rapa var. yellow sarson (NRCYS-05-02) (2n=20, AA) by sexual mating. The F1s were obtained only when B. tournefortii was used as the female parent. Morphological, cytological and sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS) based molecular analyses were carried out to confirm the hybrid nature of F1 plants. Morphologically, the F1 plants were intermediate for most of the morphological attributes. Although, the F1s showed poor pollen fertility, a few seeds were obtained from open pollination in the surroundings of B. rapa. The F1 plants showed predominance of univalents (53.66%), a typical feature of wide hybrids. The occurrence of chromosome association ranging from bivalents (0–4), trivalent (0–1) and quadrivalent (0–1) in the F1s indicated homeologous pairing between the T and A genomes. STMS analysis of the parents and the F1s revealed a high degree of similarity (75%) and rearrangements in the two genomes during or after their fusion. The study suggests that B. tournefortii has partial genome homeology with B. rapa which could be exploited in crop improvement programmes, particularly breeding for tolerance/resistance to white rust and mustard aphid.
Daphne virus S (DVS), a member of the genus Carlavirus, was isolated from a daphne plant in Japan. The genome of the isolate (DVS-JP) consisted of 8736 nucleotides and was predicted to contain six open reading frames (ORFs). The overall genome sequence identity between DVS-JP and the previously reported Korean isolate of DVS (DVS-K) was 83.0%, whereas identities to other carlaviruses ranged from 20.5–56.0%. Each DVS-JP ORF shared more than 80% identity at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels with DVS-K, but less than 56% with other carlaviruses, which confirmed that DVS-JP was the same species as DVS-K. The RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) showed the highest identity with Phlox virus S, and the coat protein (CP) showed the highest identity with Helenium virus S and Chrysanthemum virus B. The genome sequence of an isolate of DVS-JP revealed a high degree of identity with DVS-K, which increases our understanding of the evolution of the genus Carlavirus.
The objective of this study is to investigate the role of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the proliferation, differentiation and collagen synthesis of pulmonary fibroblasts (PFs) and the possible mechanism. PFs were isolated from male Wistar Rat and transfected with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide or sense oligodeoxynucleotide (SODN) of bFGF for four experimental conditions: (1) control group: PFs without TGF-β1; (2) TGF-β1 group: PFs with TGF-β1; (3) TGF-β1+ASODN group: ASODN transfected PFs with TGF-β1; and (4) TGF-β1+SODN group: SODN transfected PFs with TGF-β1. Proliferation of PFs was monitored by growth curves and MTT assays, expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, concentrations of bFGF, CTGF, and Type I collagen in culture supernatants were determined by ELISA, and mRNA expression of Smad3, Smad7 and Type I collagen in pulmonary fibroblasts was detected by RT-PCR. We found that SODN of bFGF increased cell proliferation of PFs, enhanced the expression level of bFGF, CTGF, α-SMA, type I collagen and Smad3. However, ASODN of bFGF had the opposite effects. However, Smad7 was increased in TGF-β1+SODN group but decreased in TGF-β1+ASODN group. The proliferation, differentiation, and collagen synthesis of PFs could be promoted by bFGF and inhibited by ASODN of bFGF which may be related to the regulation of TGF-β1-Smad signaling pathway.
The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of different doses of Paraquat treatment on Allium cepa L. Root length (RL), germination percentage (GP), weight gain (WG), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronucleus (MN) frequency and anatomical alterations (AA) were used as toxicity indicators, and the data were correlated with statistical parameters. The seeds were seperated into four groups; one as control and three as Paraquat treatment groups. Paraquat doses of 10, 50, and 100 ppm were used in treatment groups during 72 h. The results indicated that Paraquat showed dose-dependent effects in the RL, GP, WG, CAs, MN frequency and AA on Allium cepa L. seeds. Increasing the dose of Paraquat significantly decreased RL, WG and GP in all of the treatment groups. The highest rate for RL, GP and WG were observed in the control group. Also, the frequency of MN and CAs showed dose-dependent increase in all of the Paraquat treatment groups. The rate of MN formation and CAs frequency were observed to be highest at the 100-ppm dose of Paraquat and lowest at the 10-ppm dose of Paraquat. Paraquat treatment caused anatomical alterations on root tips and rate of anatomical alterations increased with increasing dose of Paraquat. The results of this study showed that the widely used Paraquat herbicide showed toxic effects at certain concentrations which was demonstrated using Allium cepa L. test material. The selected parameters such as RL, GP, WG, CAs, MN frequency and AA are very sensitive and useful biomarkers for biomonitoring these effects.
At present male meiosis and pollen fertility have been studied in 17 species of dicots from different localities of Rajasthan. Varied cytotype reports of Capparis decidua (n=18), Ipomoea pes-tigridis (n=30) and Triumfetta rhomboidea (n=8) have been reported for the first time from world level. Meanwhile, Orobanche ramosa (n=12) is the first diploid cytotype report from India. Present chromosome counts for the remaining species have already been reported by other researchers. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of the species. The anomalous taxa are marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges resulting in abnormal microsporogenesis and production of heterogenous sized fertile pollen grains.
In the present study, the allelopathic effects of Zygophyllum simplex aqueous extract on Vicia faba was tested. Three concentrations (10, 20 and 40%) for three times of treatment (6, 12, 18 h) were applied. The control plants were normal, while the treated ones were significantly affected. Low concentration (10%) at all treatment times had a stimulatory effect on seed germination percentage. On the other hand, high concentration of the extract gave rise to substantial reduction in all parameters studied as the concentration increase and time of treatment prolonged. In contrast, the percentage of mitotic and meiotic aberrations increased and were time and dose dependent. Various types of mitotic and meiotic aberrations were observed. Sticky and micronuclei types of aberrations were found more frequently, confirming the toxic effect of the extract at high concentrations. Meiotic parameters of chromosome association, chiasma frequency and pollen fertility were also found affected by the time and dose. The present study proves the mutagenic effects of this extract on Vicia faba, especially at high doses. It also recommends its use at low concentrations when used as folk medicine. However, with the use of medicinal plants for treatment (folk medicine) recently increasing instead of synthetic chemical drugs, their side effects and safe and effective dose should be carefully pretested and documented before public use.
Psammosilene tunicoides W. C. Wu & C. Y. Wu, belonging to the monotypic genus Psammosilene in the family Caryophyllaceae, is an endangered and endemic plant to China. A karyological study was carried out on 20 populations of P. tunicoides across its distribution region. All populations of the P. tunicoides studied are diploid (2n=2x=28), and the basic chromosome number was confirmed to be x=14. Various chromosome morphologies were revealed, but didn’t show clear geographical pattern. P. tunicoides is initially placed in Silene L., but P. tunicoides is different from Silene L. in the basic chromosome number of x=10 and 12. The results of this study support the view that P. tunicoides is turned into the independent genus from Silene L. Combining the available chromosome studies of Saponaria L. and Psammosilene tunicoides, the two species have relatively consistent chromosome diversification with a basic number of 14, and most species of the Saponaria L. contain diploid individuals, which suggested that there are certain phylogenetic relationships between Psammosilene tunicoides and Saponaria L.