1. Histochemical tests in regard to glycogen were successful on the salivary gland chromosomes. The existence of glycogen seems to be specifically found only in the salivary gland chromosomes of the Diptera, and the fact that the glycogen in chromosomes is uniformly stained makes the authors feel that glycogen must be located in matrix. 2. It was demonstrated in detail from the standpoint of microchemical reaction as well as isoelectric point of chromosome that the protein of the salivary gland chromosomes is at most only partially digested by pepsin, , though completely digested by trypsin. 3. It was revealed an interesting metachromasia that the chromosome aquired a reddish purple by staining with toluidin blue which was at more alkalic side than pH 4.4 in pepsin digestion, and at more alkalic side than pH 1.8 in trypsin digestion. 4. It was confirmed that the metachromasia of toluidin blue in chromosome depends upon the existence of desoxyribose-nucleic acid uncompounded with protein. 5. The kind of basic protein of the salivary gland chromosomes was decided by staining with brillantazurin B as well as isoelectric point to prove that the greater part of the basic protein was histone, a part of it being a non-histone protein.
The present work concerns a quantitative-descriptive study of the protoplasmic flow in the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, in terms of its rate. The measurement was done at a straight capillary of protoplasm under normal state. First is determined by aid of a cinematographic technique the velocity distribution of protoplasm at a time in an optical section of the streaming channel. It looks apparently like a parabola, but its apex is too flattened to be taken as a perfect parabola. This behavior of protoplasm is very similar to the case in which an anomalous liquid is made to move through a capillary tube by a difference in pressure. Next are mentioned two techniques permitting the successive measurement of the rapidly changing velocity of the protoplasmic flow. They are the “running belt” method and “shadow imprinting” method. By means of the latter technique, a grain-like pattern consisting of numerous brighter and darker lines is obtained automatically representing the shadow of the protoplasmic streaming.
Two special methods have made it possible to represent in an undulating curve the relation between the rate of flow and time. The maximum velocity of the streaming changes in each rhythm, sometimes exceeding 1 mm/sec at optimum temperature. In one of the instances mentioned in the present report, the maximum speed reached 1.35 mm/sec, which is the greatest velocity of protoplasmic flow ever recorded. The patterns of the curves representing the rise and fall of the streaming rate in relation to time are all different according not only to the material used but also to the time of measurement in one and the same material. The general characteristics of these velocity curves show close parallelism with those of the motive force or dynamoplasmograms, though the former involve more complex factors than the latter. The pronounced changes in the wave form and amplitude are most satisfactorily understood from the standpoint of intraplasmic interfference advanced by the author on the basis of the analysis of the motive force curve.
It was stressed that the excitatory state, which is produced by a stimulating current in the nerve fiber and releases a nerve impulse when it rises above a certain definite critical level, does not decay exponentially, as has been assumed in the previous theories, after removal of the current. A brief stimulating current set up an excitatory state which rises first slowly, then quickly and finally reaches a maximum a fraction of a millisecond after termination of the current. After this maximum is reached, it begins to decay (Fig. 4, left). The time course of the excitatory state was shown to vary, as the course of the stimulating current, in accordance with “the law of proportionality and superposition” (Figs. 1, 2, 6 and 9; equation 10). Evidence was presented to believe that the law of excitation by long, slowly varying stimulating currents is different from that for short stimulating currents.
1) Various forms of Saccharum spontaneum collected from different parts of Formosa can be, in general, divided into two categories, small and large. The smaller plant, below 2m in height with a glabrous ligule, is S. spontaneum subsp. indicum var. genuinum, the chromosome numbers being n=56, 2n=112. The larger one, taller than 2m in height with a ciliate ligule, is S. spontaneum subsp. indicum var. Roxburghii, the chromosome numbers of which are n=48, 2n=96. The relation between the plant height and the chromosome number shows a sheer contrast compared to the cases in S. spontaneum reported by some investigators to date. In Formosa, both kinds of spontaneum are found on the plains and mountains below the elevation 500m, especially on the banks of rivers or seashores. 2) Any number of chromosomes other than above mentioned two was found in naturally grown spontaneum of Formosa, though a considerable difference in morphological characteristics was seen within each variety. 3) The distribution map of S. spontaneum in South-eastern Asia and its vicinity was presented, and the area was divided as follows according to the number of chromosomes of the plants growing: I. Malay Archipelago and South Seas Section........ Philippines, Micronesia, New Guinea involved. II. India-Burma Section........ Turkmenistan involved. III. Japan Islands Section....... Formosa, Okinawa involved. 4) Speciality in the mode of distribution and chromosome numbers of S. spontaneum in India, as well as the existence of abundant kinds of cultivated sugar cane there, suggests us that at least one of the keys to unlock the question of unknown ancestral sugar cane forms seems to be concealed in the northern part of India. 5) S. spontaneum subsp. indicum var. genuinum of Formosa and Glagah of Java, appear to be phylogenetically different, though the number of chromosomes is the same (2n=112). This conclusion may be drawn from the facts that: (1) they are different in external aspects, (2) two islands under consideration seem to have no geographical connection concerning the distribution of S. spontaneum, other kinds of spontaneum with different numbers of chromosomes being found in the districts between Formosa and Java, and (3) S. spontaneum in Hainan and Philippine islands, lying nearest to Formosa, are considered to be different from genuinum of Formosa, making the distribution of genuinum in Formosa isolated from near lying islands. 6) Narenga porphyrocoma in Formosa is n=15, which is the same as Javanese and Indian materials. This plant shows sometimes high degree of polyvalent conjugation in meiosis of PMC-s.
By means of the oxidizing activity of supersonic vibration, the euchromatic bands can be made to take purplish blue when stained with neutral violet, while the heterochromatin region remains purplish-red. This shows the difference in chemical composition between euchromatin and heterochromatin.
1. In aceto-carmine smears of Luzula campestris, the six bivalents at metaphase I appear to be associated in groups rather than spread out at random. The two most common arrangements are three groups of two bivalents and a one-two-three arrangement. 2. In sectioned material, no such grouping is present. The secondary associations of the smears are therefore artifacts. 3. In the sectioned material, the pollen-mother cells and the spindles at the equatorial plate are frequently asymmetric. The chromosomes vary in arrangement on the plate, to a large degree in accord with the asymmetry of the spindle. The three types of chromosome arrangement are the circular, the triangular, and the type with two rows. 4. Comparisons, some of them quantitative, can be made between the arrangements of chromosomes in the sections and those of the smears. Factors which may aid in the production of the spurious secondary association are discussed. The writer is indebted to Dr. G. LEDYARD STEBBINS, Jr. for suggesting a cytological study of L. campestris, and to him and to Dr. ALOHA HANNAH for pertinent suggestions during the course of this work.
1. So-called “droplets”, found in the generative cell of Amaryllidaceous and Iridaceous plants by the present writer, were investigated in the living state by the help of chemical, micro-spectroscopic and luminescence microscopic analysis. 2. The yellow or brownish yellow “droplets” in the generative cell of Narcissus Tazetta, var. suisen, contain two kinds of carotinoid dye, an unknown substance absorbing green-yellow light, and an orangered luminescent substance, and are rich of lipoid but contain no chlorophyll. 3. It is concluded that the “droplets” are yellow chromoplasts. And the relation and connection with the results by other authors were considered.
In order to detect the cytoplasmic effect on the phenotypic expression of the gene, the chromosome substitution between two different species is a useful mean and there are two important methods in this connection, namely the first and the second method (Kihara 1948). The purpose of the present paper is to calculate the speed of the substitution under various conditions and some tables and graphs are constructed for facilities in the chromosome substitution experiment. In conclusion, I heartily thank Professor H. Kihara for his kind guidance and continuous encouragement.
By means of the micro-chemical reaction, incineration and electron microscope, the inorganic substances in the salivary gland chromosome of Drosophila virilis were detected, and the following results were obtained:- 1. Phosphates are localized in chromatin bands, while potassium salts are present in matrix. 2. The presence of calcium salts is recognized only in the cytoplasm.
The sections of the salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila virilis made by means of supersonic vibration, and treated with the silver impregnation method and examined with the electron microscope show minute structures of chromatin bands and interchromatin bands of the chromosomes. The chromatin band is composed of a multitude of chromomere granules; the interchromatin band appears cocoonshaped or irregularly oval in shape, and contains 64 pairs of chromonemata embedded in the opaque matrix.