CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
33 巻 , 3-4 号
選択された号の論文の24件中1~24を表示しています
  • Soheir M. Amer, Odette R. Farah
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 337-344
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The meiotic effects of the insecticide N-methyl-1-naphthyl-carbamate “Sevin” were tested by spraying flower buds of Vicia faba plants of different ages with the insecticidal solution for different periods of time, recovery experiments were also conducted. It was found that the percentage of abnormal PCM's increased by increasing the No. of sprays then decreased by increasing the time of recovery. Stickiness lagging chromosomes, and other irregularities were effected by “Sevin” in meiosis. Polyploid PMC's were also induced by different treatments with “Sevin”. The different treatments with “Sevin” did not induce pollen sterility.
  • Sheila Joshi
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 345-356
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The paper deals with a comparative data of cytological and palynological salient features of chemically induced autoploids and translocation heterozygotes of certain members of Umbelliferae (Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella monoecia, Carum copticum, Cuminum cyminum and Daucus carota). In general the plants exhibit low multivalent frequency. At diakinesis Carum copticum has no univalents and trivalents while Anethum graveolens shows complete absence of trivalents, the remaining four genera have all the expected configurations. A comparative idea of the cytological anomalies exhibited by the plants understudy is also provided. A feature shared by all the plants investigated is the presence of nondividing pollen mother cells in their sporogenous tissue. The pollen of all the polyploids and some 2n treated plants show variability in shape while that of the controls is uniformly bipolar, radiosymmetric-characteristic of the family. The variable grains have been classified into definite types. Explanation has been put forward regarding this artificial induction of pollen variability and a scheme of the lines of development of the different shapes is also presented.
  • Rakesh K. Rastogi
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 357-369
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Sajiro Makino, Takao Aya
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 370-396
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Chromosome abnormalities were studied in leukocyte cultures from patients with serum hepatitis, infectious hepatitis, rubella and aseptic meningitis, and in those infected with herpes simplex virus, with special consideration of the type and frequency of the abnormalities. Some statistical assessments were made on the randomness and non-randomness of breakage distribution in chromosome groups, arms, and segments.
    The most frequent type of abnormalities observed in leukocytes from patients with these viral diseases was a simple chromatid-type break as represented by a full break in one chromatid. In cultured leukocytes infected with herpes simplex virus, chromatid-type breaks were also most common.
    In general, the frequency of cells with chromosome breaks in the patient materials was considerably higher than that in the control series with a statistically significant difference, with the exception of 10 cases of aseptic meningitis observed in 1965. Chromosome aberrations induced in cultured leukocytes by infection with herpes simplex virus were also characterized by chromatid-type breaks which were considerably higher in occurrence than in non-infected leukocytes.
    In the leukocytes of serum hepatitis patients, the most significant excess of breaks occurred in the middle segments of the long arms of chromosomes 13-15. Chromosomes 6-X-12 showed also a significant excess in the proximal segments of their long arms. In leukocytes of infectious hepatitis patients, a relatively significant excess of breaks was observed in the middle segments of the long arms of chromosomes 4-5. Leukocyte cultures infected with herpes simplex virus showed the most significant excess of breaks occurring in the middle segments of the long arms of chromosomes 6-X-12. A deficit of breaks in smaller chromosome groups (19-20, Y-21-22) seemed to be a common feature through cases of serum hepatitis and infectious hepatitis, and also in leukocytes infected with herpes simplex virus.
  • Alan McDermott
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 397-400
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Human chromosomes were obtained from lymphocyte cultures, some of which were incubated with colchicine to provide metaphase chromosomes. After treatment with hypotonic sodium citrate solution, the cells were spread on an air-water interface. Chromosomes were picked up on carbon coated electron-microscope grids and negatively-stained with 2% phosphotungstic acid.
    Chromosomes treated in this way tend to distort or fragment, but some are sufficiently well preserved to be identified with their light microscope equivalents. The negative stain enables good resolution of fine structure. The basic structural unit appears to consist of two closely coiled microfibrils some 45-60Å diameter. These appear to be irregularly wound into quaternary coils in the condensing chromosomes.
  • K. Ramachandran
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 401-410
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Cytological studies of ten species and a few varieties of Dioscorea and the monotypic genus Trichopus occurring in South India have been made. The chromosome numbers of South Indian Dioscorea species are seen to occur in multiples of the basic number 10 (40, 60, 80, 90, 100), as in the case of other Asiatic species reported previously. Trichopus zeylanicus (n=14, 2n=28) shows a basic number of 14 not found in any other genus of the Dioscoreaceae so far studied. Cytological data support morphological and anatomical evidence suggesting creation of a separate family for the genus Trichopus.
  • Arun Kumar Sharma, D. Tulsi Raju
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 411-426
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The paper deals with cytological investigations on twenty-four species and varieties of Bauhinia, Phanera and Piliostigma. Both meiotic and detailed karyotype studies were done using isopsoralene, as a pre-treatment agent. In majority of the species the chromosome number is 2n=28 excepting P. malabaricum. In this species both n=14 and 21 chromosomes have been observed. On this basis the allopolyploid nature of the polyploid forms has been suggested.
    Whether 14 or 7 chromosomes should be the basic set of these genera is debatable. All chromosome numbers as yet recorded are multiples of 7. The occasional occurrence of secondary association of bivalents in certain species, namely Bauhinia diphylla, shows that the number 14 may be a derived one.
    All the species of Bauhinia, Phanera and Piliostigma show a gross similarity in the nature of karyotype, having rather short chromosomes with gradation in size. Due to the marked resemblance in karyotype, these three genera apparently represent a homogeneous assemblage and their inclusion within the same genus Bauhinia under Bentham and Hooker's system appears to be justified. Minute karyotype differences exist between different species and varieties suggesting the role of structural alteration of chromosomes in the evolution of species. Variations in chromosome number and chromosome morphology have been recorded in many species. These variations suggest that speciation and evolution in these species have been made possible through them being brought into effect through vegetative propagation. Drastic structural alterations have not been observed possibly due to the small size of the chromosomes.
    The histogram reveals a similarity in the chromatin content in all the species, indicating the homogeneity of the taxa and suggesting that structural alterations have principally involved rearrangement of parts and not deletion or duplication of segments. These genera, being horticultural ones, have been continually subjected to judicious selection and homozygosity has also been attained for structural alterations.
    P. M. C.'s also show a large number of extra-chromosomal droplets of stainable bodies in the cell. Being carmine-positive they may have a nucleic acid constitution. The reason for their formation through disturbance of DNA:RNA ratio has been discussed.
    Definite evidences of heterozygosity namely, inversion bridge, have been observed in Bauhinia diphylla. Such inversion heterozygosity as noted in Bauhinia is principally maintained through extensive propagation by cuttings in horticulture. The possible reasons for the occurrence of polyspory and its fate have been discussed.
  • S. R. Baquar, S. Akhtar
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 427-438
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The cytogenetical behaviour of four species of Sesbania Adanson viz. S. grandiflora Poir.; S. bispinosa (Jacq.) Wight; S. concolor Gillett and S. sesban (L.) Merrill has been described for the first time from West-Pakistan. The chromosome count of n=12 for S. concolor is a new record as it does not appear to have been investigated before. The spindle anomalies and an inconsistency in the chromosome numbers of S. sesban have been discussed.
  • Arun Kumar Sharma, Sibdas Ghosh
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 439-452
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Cytological investigations on 15 species of Ficoideae of Bentham and Hooker have been worked out with the aid of improved methods. A homogeneity in chromosome number and structure in all the genera has been found. The acceptance of the status of Ficoideae (or Ficoidaceae) embracing all these genera under three tribes as created by Bentham and Hooker has been stressed. The tribe Aizoideae having a basic set of 8 or 9 and with a wide range of habit and habitat is the most primitive among these three tribes. Two separate evolutionary lines emerged from the Sesurium-like ancestral stock, one led to the terrestrial forms of the tribe Mollugineae and the other to pure succulents of the tribe Mesembryeae. Both the above tribes have predominantly a basic set of 9. The genera like Trianthema, Tetragonia with a basic set of 8 chromosomes seem to be derivations adapted to certain conditions of environment.
    Lastly, the occurrence of variation in chromosome numbers in two species has been discussed and the need of investigations in this direction concerning the relative importance of sexual and vegetative means of speciation in this family has been stressed.
  • V. R. Dnyansagar, I. V. Sudhakaran
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 453-464
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Meiosis with special reference to the chiasma frequency and interchromosomal distribution of chiasmata between the bivalents has been studied in Vinca rosea. The chiasma frequency in both pink and red varieties is almost the same. The differential staining of chromosomes probably may be ascribed to the differential coiling of the chromosomes at different stages in the prophase. The genotypic control seems to be extended to the level of interchromosomal distribution of chiasmata. The negative correlation between bivalents in relation to the interchromosomal distribution of chiasmata may be the result of the mechanisms which control the chiasma distribution.
    The authors wish to express their thanks to Mr. S. S. Chiney, Deputy Director of Statistics, Worli Dairy, Bombay for help in statistical analysis.
  • G. Sadasivan, Lily N. Ebenezer
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 465-470
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Metaphase chromosomes from leukocyte cultures of Indian subjects have been measured. Mean length index and arm ratios compare well with figures from other parts of the world-except chromosome No. 2 which in a large percentage of cases is longer than Ch: No. 1. The fallacies involved in measuring and basing correlations on these are discussed.
  • V. R. Reddi
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 471-476
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Chromosome pairing in two haploid Sorghum plants was studied. Chiasmatic bivalents and secondary pairing appearing as end to end and side by side configurations of two chromosomes are described. On the basis of frequency of these chromosomal associations observed in diakinesis and metaphase I cells, it is suggested that upto a maximum of 5 chromosomes in the haploid genome of Sorghum carry duplicated segments. The evidence obtained, therefore, justifies the alloploid origin of grain sorghums with perhaps a base mumber of five chromosomes.
    A possible method of formation of functional gametes by the haploids of Sorghum investigated is suggested by the occasional segregation of 10-10 chromatids observed at early anaphase I.
  • S. R. V. Rao, V. C. Shah, Champaka Seshadri
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 477-481
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The diploid chromosome number of the Indian gerbil, Tatera indica cuverii (Waterhouse), is 68. The two X chromosomes are large, heteromorphic and easily distinguishable from the autosomes. On the basis of chromosome number and morphology, the interrelationships of the different species of Tatera are discussed.
  • Keizo Maruyama
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 482-497
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Changes in the structure of plastids and mitochondria were observed with the electron microscope during the microsporogenesis and pollen development of Tradescantia paludosa. It was found that either organelle develops more or less synchronously and divides simultaneously within certain limited periods. Generation of the organelles is, thus, recognized. The plastids develop from proplastids to amyloplasts in each generation. The mitochondria take characteristic morphology for each generation (Tex-fig. 1). On the contrary to the Golgi body, the plastids and the mitochondria keep their continuity through alteration of generation; namely, at the division periods amyloplasts turn to proplastids by diminution of starch in the case of the plastids, and the meta-morphosis of forms or internal structures takes place in the case of the mito-chondria.
  • H. Clémençon
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 498-507
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Seven species of Lyophyllum and Calocybe have been investigated to pinpoint time and location of the formation of siderophilous (“carminophilous”) granules in their basidia, and efforts have been made to follow the development of those granules by light and electron microscopy. They appear between karyogamy and first telophase as tiny points and grow into typical granules. Sometimes they develop into larger irregularly shaped masses. The siderophilous granules are formed within the endoplasmic reticulum. They contain a loosely woven fibrillar lattice that quickly becomes denser and finally changes into a dense mass. Some dense granules expand into the irregularly shaped masses that can be seen with the light microscope.
  • Tomosaburo Yabuno
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 508-519
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, 11 perennial strains of wild Echinochloa species from Africa were mainly treated biosystematically. It could be confirmed that one strain from Kenya has 2n=18, one strain from Kalahari has 2n=90, and of seven strains from Mali, two have 2n=54, one has 2n=63 and four have 2n=72. One strain from Nigeria has 2n=36 and one strain from Northern Cameroun has 2n=72. According to the routine taxonomic system of the genus Echinochloa, these strains have been identified as either E. stagnina or E. pyramidalis.
    All these strains are tolerable to flooding condition. Among them, West African strains were collected in the inundated area, where floating varieties of Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima were grown.
    Perennial 4X(2n=36) and 14X(2n=126) strains of E. stagnina were found in West Bengal and Assam, respectively, and an annual 12X(2n=108) strain of this species was in the northwest of Western Australia.
    On the basis of the results of morphological and cytological studies on the strains which have been identified either as E. stagnina or E. pyramidalis, it is considered that the taxonomic status of these two species are not well established so far. In order to grasp the intrinsic nature of the wide variations recognized in E. stagnina and E. pyramidalis and to elucidate the relationships among the chromosomal races of these two Echinochloa species, the cytogenetical investigations are required to be done.
    The present investigation was facilitated by receiving the valuable materials from Drs. H. I. Oka and W. T. Chang. Their kind cooperation is cordially appreciated.
  • Ryuso Tanaka
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 520-525
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Chromosome 1 (V-shaped chromosome) of Haplopappus gracilis (2n=4) had three late-replicating regions located independently in the proximal regions of both arms, in a median region of the long arm and in a subdistal region of the long arm.
    2. Chromosome 2 (J-shaped, satellited chromosome) of this species had two late-replicating regions situated in the proximal regions of both arms and in the satellite.
    3. All of the late-replicating regions in the two pairs of chromosomes were found to be heterochromatic.
    4. The duration of DNA replication in heterochromatins was found to be longer than that in euchromatins.
    5. It was presumed that chromosome 1 was organized as a compound chromosome composed of three independently replicating segments.
  • K. Tsunewaki, K. Noda, T. Fujisawa
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 526-538
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to elucidate the developmental mechanism underlying the frequent formation of haploids and twins in a nucleus-substitution line of a common wheat Salmon (2n=42), several experiments were carried out with the following results:
    1. Salmon's nucleus was placed by repeated backcrosses into the three alien cytoplasms of Aegilops caudata, Ae. ovata and Triticum timopheevi, and the occurrence of haploids and twins was investigated in the three nucleus-substitution lines (indicated by (caudata)-Salmon, (ovata)-Salmon and (timopheevi)-Salmon) and a normal line of Salmon. Both haploids and twins were frequently found only in (caudata)-Salmon; Ae. caudata cytoplasm was evidently different in this regard from the other cytoplasms employed.
    2. In (caudata)-Salmon, parthenogenetic embryos were found in 29.8 per cent of ovules, which remained non-pollinated and were fixed six to nine days after emasculation, while 29.4 per cent of plants obtained from pollination delayed for five to nine days after emasculation were haploid. This fact indicates that haploid formation in this material is mainly due to haploid parthenogenesis of the egg cell.
    3. Frequency of twin seedlings was on the average 6.5 per cent, most of them being of haplo-diplo type. Embryological studies of non-pollinated and delayed pollinated ovules as well as cytological and morphological studies of twin seedlings revealed that parthenogenetic development of the egg cell, followed by fertilization of one of the synergids is the main mechanism of the formation of twin embryos; fertilization of a synergid was taking place in about 24 per cent of ovules, whose egg cell had developed parthenogenetically.
  • K. G. Shambulingappa
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 539-544
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Occurrence of B chromosomes in three accessions of Digitaria has been reported. This is the first report of its kind in the genus Digitaria. Their morphology at pachytene and behaviour at meiosis have been studied in detail. B chromosomes found in all these accessions were heterochromatic, shorter than the shortest chromosome of the A complement and varied in size. It is suggested that these chromosomes in the genus Digitaria have arisen as a result of fragmentation of heterochromatic segments from the A chromosomes.
  • Shogo Sawamura, W. T. Jackson
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 545-554
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    By means of in vivo observation, the effects on dividing and nondividing staminal hair cells of Tradescantia and stipular cells of Vicia of the following herbicides were investigated: picloram, pyriclor, trifluralin, 2, 3, 6-TBA, 2, 3, 5, 6-TBA, and nitralin.
    At high concentrations, picloram and pyriclor cause coagulation of cytoplasm. At low concentrations, they increase cell elongation in both Tradescantia and Vicia.
    Trifluralin, 2, 3, 6-TBA and 2, 3, 5, 6-TBA were more toxic to Vicia than to Tradescantia cells. In fact, trifluralin caused a significant increase in final cell lengths compared to the controls, whereas it had little or no effect on elongation of Vicia leaf cells in isolated pieces of tissue.
    Nitralin in very low concentrations caused mitotic aberrations similar to those induced by colchicine. These results confirmed earlier studies on fixed material and further demonstrated that ntralin, like CIPC and IPC, was more toxic to Tradescantia, a monocot, than to Vicia, a dicot. Nitralin should prove to be a valuable tool in relating deviations in the normal pattern of mitosis as observed in the light microscope with changes that take place at the ultrastructural and biochemical level.
    The effects of picloram, pyriclor and 2, 3, 6-TBA on chloroplast development are discussed.
    Malformation and death of plants treated with herbicides must be explained ultimately on the basis of effects on division, growth, and differentiation of individual cells. These effects, in turn, must be understood in terms of the mechanism of action of the herbicide at the molecular level. Explanations of the selective action of herbicides may reside in differences in absorption or translocation between susceptible and nonsusceptible species. But, if the selectivity is based on differences in tolerances to the herbicide at the cellular level, in vivo studies of this nature provide essential information.
  • Shogo Sawamura, W. T. Jackson
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 555-557
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • T. Hirano, W. Tacreiter, A. Eaves, J. G. Kaplan
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 558-564
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Intact yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) protoplasts were prepared by treating cells grown in a glucose medium with snail gut enzyme. Preparations fixed in a modified Carnoy's fluid and stained with uranyl acetate were studied in the electron microscope. All traces of cell wall were absent in these preparations. The plasma membrane was found to consist of two electron dense layers separated by a less dense layer, the overall thickness being approximately 80Å. Cellobiose-grown cells of the same strain of yeast could not be converted into protoplasts by the snail enzyme procedure.
  • Anil B. Mukherjee, Maimon M. Cohen
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 565-567
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    A minor modification of a mammalian cytogenetic technique allows excellent cytologic preparations of chromosomes and nuclei from either the gonads or somatic cells of both large and small insects. This method can also be used for autoradiographic investigations.
    This communication describes a method for excellent cytological preparations of both chromosomes and nuclei from the gonads of grasshoppers and from the brain tissue of mosquito larvae without recourse to manual squashes or histological sections. The method was developed with a slight modification of the techniques used in mammalian chromosome preparation (Hsu and Pomerat 1953; Rothfels and Siminovitch 1958, Moorhead, Nowell, Mellman, Battips and Hungerford 1960, and Tarkowski 1966). This procedure can be applied to study all stages of meiosis in both testes and ovaries of grasshoppers and locusts; as well as mitosis from the brain cells of fourth instar mosquito larvae (prepupae) and is readily adaptable for autoradiographic investigations.
  • A. P. Singh
    1968 年 33 巻 3-4 号 p. 568-574
    発行日: 1968/12/25
    公開日: 2009/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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